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Ancient Man and His First Civilizations

Anatolia (modern Turkey)



As is obvious, the purpose of this site is to counter the absurd assertions (just plain lies really), of Whites that they (Whites = Central Asian Albinos) played any part in the creation of Mans original Civilizations; much less, were the actual founders of those civilizations. Throughout this site we used original Artifacts and ancient documents, as well as scientific studies of skeletons, to refute Albino falsehoods and their freshly made Fake artifacts. For Anatolia (now called Turkey) we begin with establishing the race of the original people: Africans - original man, and the race of the LAST real civilization of the area - the Black Byzantine (also called the Eastern Roman Empire). As a corollary, this starting study also proves that the "Western Roman Empire" was also Black. Not to mention the Ancient Egyptians and "Middle Easterners". Which are probably the most absurd and delusional Albino claims of all: (That Egyptians and Levantine's were White).These objectives are attained with the following study: "Cranial Discrete Traits in a Byzantine Population and Eastern Mediterranean Population Movements," Ricaut, F. X. and Waelkens, M (2008). Human Biology: Vol. 80: Iss. 5, Article 5.





Having grown sick, tired and disgusted by Albinos trying to insert themselves into Black History with fake accounts and fake artifacts. We counter with the truth and true artifacts. Sadly, now Albinos have us to the point where we even need to respond to Whitenized depictions of Blacks with more accurate paintings.









Apologies for not explaining how eye color can be determined by DNA. Of course Genetics and a whole host of other things are explained in the Special Subjects Pages, but then again we don't want to overtax our readers. Under the heading of "Why reinvent the wheel" The U.S. Department of Health & Human Services - U.S. National Library of Medicine: has a reasonably race neutral (for Albinos) page on the subject - they still "IMPLY" lies.


Is eye color determined by genetics?

A person’s eye color results from pigmentation of a structure called the iris, which surrounds the small black hole in the center of the eye (the pupil) and helps control how much light can enter the eye. The color of the iris ranges on a continuum from very light blue to dark brown. Most of the time eye color is categorized as blue, green/hazel, or brown. Brown is the most frequent eye color worldwide. Lighter eye colors, such as blue and green, are found almost exclusively among people of European ancestry.

Eye color is determined by variations in a person’s genes. Most of the genes associated with eye color are involved in the production, transport, or storage of a pigment called Melanin. Eye color is directly related to the amount and quality of Melanin in the front layers of the iris. People with brown eyes have a large amount of Melanin in the iris, while people with blue eyes have much less of this pigment.

A particular region on chromosome 15 plays a major role in eye color. Within this region, there are two genes located very close together: OCA2 and HERC2. The protein produced from the OCA2 gene, known as the P protein, is involved in the maturation of melanosomes, which are cellular structures that produce and store Melanin. The P protein therefore plays a crucial role in the amount and quality of Melanin that is present in the iris. Several common variations (polymorphisms) in the OCA2 gene reduce the amount of functional P protein that is produced. Less P protein means that less Melanin is present in the iris, leading to blue eyes instead of brown in people with a polymorphism in this gene.

A region of the nearby HERC2 gene known as intron 86 contains a segment of DNA that controls the activity (expression) of the OCA2 gene, turning it on or off as needed. At least one polymorphism in this area of the HERC2 gene has been shown to reduce the expression of OCA2, which leads to less Melanin in the iris and lighter-colored eyes.

Several other genes play smaller roles in determining eye color. Some of these genes are also involved in skin and hair coloring. Genes with reported roles in eye color include ASIP, IRF4, SLC24A4, SLC24A5, SLC45A2, TPCN2, TYR, and TYRP1. The effects of these genes likely combine with those of OCA2 and HERC2 to produce a continuum of eye colors in different people. (THE ABOVE ARE ALL ALBINISM GENES!).


TYPES OF ALBINISM (There is currently seven identified).


Researchers used to think that eye color was determined by a single gene and followed a simple inheritance pattern in which brown eyes were dominant to blue eyes. Under this model, it was believed that parents who both had blue eyes could not have a child with brown eyes. However, later studies showed that this model was too simplistic. Although it is uncommon, parents with blue eyes can have children with brown eyes. The inheritance of eye color is more complex than originally suspected because multiple genes are involved. While a child’s eye color can often be predicted by the eye colors of his or her parents and other relatives, genetic variations sometimes produce unexpected results.

Several disorders that affect eye color have been described. Ocular Albinism is characterized by severely reduced pigmentation of the iris, which causes very light-colored eyes and significant problems with vision. Another condition called Oculocutaneous Albinism affects the pigmentation of the skin and hair in addition to the eyes. Affected individuals tend to have very light-colored irises, fair skin, and white or light-colored hair. Both Ocular Albinism and Oculocutaneous Albinism result from mutations in genes involved in the production and storage of Melanin. Another condition called heterochromia is characterized by different-colored eyes in the same individual. Heterochromia can be caused by genetic changes or by a problem during eye development, or it can be acquired as a result of a disease or injury to the eye. End quote.


How it all Works

Melanin is the substance that makes Black People Black. All Earth's creatures who live in Sunshine, produce it in their bodies to protect them against the harmful effects of the Suns Rays. Creatures who don't produce Melanin are called Albinos: from Latin albus (White), from Spanish albo (White) - "Hence White People".


Even White Polar Bears have BLACK SKIN!




Though ALL White people were originally Black People, not all Black people with damaged color genes turn completely into White people. Sometimes ONLY their Eye-Color or Hair-Color genes are effected, in which case THIS is what happens to them.



Blonde Hair



Blue Eyes
Green Eyes
Gray Eyes





The Nonsense that White People are Cold Adapted Humans

One of the Albinos most outrageous lies is that they are “WHITE SKINNED” because they are a “COLD ADAPTED” People who EVOLVED light Skin to better absorb Sunlight for vitamin “D” synthesis. That is a ridiculous lie, and it is thoroughly and scientifically debunked Here: << Click here >>





Back to the historical stuff:




{Sagalassos is an archaeological site in southwestern Turkey, about 100 km north of Antalya (ancient Attaleia). Large-scale excavations started in 1990 under the direction of Marc Waelkens of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. The Katholieke Universiteit LeuvenA (in English: Catholic University of LeuvenB), is a research university in the Dutch-speaking town of Leuven in Flanders, Belgium}.

Quote: indirect contacts through geographically intermediary populations carrying“sub-Saharan” biological features in the late Pleistocene–Holocene period are discussion points.

Paleolithic period - relating to or denoting the early phase of the Stone Age, lasting about 2.5 million years, when primitive stone implements were used.
Mesolithic period - relating to or denoting the middle part of the Stone Age, between the Paleolithic and Neolithic. Approximately 11,700 B.C, to 2,700 B.C. (Depending on location).
Neolithic period - also called New Stone Age, final stage of cultural evolution or technological development among prehistoric humans. It was characterized by stone tools shaped by polishing or grinding, dependence on domesticated plants or animals, settlement in permanent villages, and the appearance of such crafts as pottery and weaving. The Neolithic followed the Paleolithic Period, or age of chipped-stone tools, and preceded the Bronze Age, or early period of metal tools.

Aurignacian culture - of or relating to an Upper Paleolithic culture marked by finely made artifacts of stone and bone, paintings, and engravings. It first appeared in Eastern Europe around 43,000 BP, and in Western Europe between 40,000 and 36,000 years BP. It was replaced by the Gravettian culture around 28,000 to 26,000 years ago.


Quote: We know from archeological data that in the upper Paleolithic period Anatolia was settled by populations with Aurignacian culture (Kuhn 2002). Recent genetic studies (Cinnioglu et al. 2004; Olivieri et al. 2006) based on the analysis of mtDNA (haplogroup M1 and U6) and the Y chromosome (R1b3-M269 lineage) suggest, in agreement with paleoenvironmental evidence (van Andel and Tzedakis 1996), that around 40,000–45,000 years ago, populations with Aurignacian culture may have spread by migration from the Levant and southwest Asia to Anatolia and further into Europe (Bar-Yosef 2002). With the exception of these scarce molecular data, almost nothing is known about the biological features of these early Paleolithic Anatolian foragers. Nevertheless, considering the important demographic processes and biological changes undergone by human populations as a result of later and major events (e.g., the Neolithic transition), we believe that the causes of the observed affinity patterns have to be determined from these later periods.

From the Mesolithic to the early Neolithic period different lines of evidence support an out-of-Africa Mesolithic migration to the Levant by northeastern African groups that had biological affinities with sub-Saharan populations.

{The Levant = Cyprus, Israel, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, southern Turkey}.

From a genetic point of view, several recent genetic studies have shown that sub Saharan genetic lineages (affiliated with the Y-chromosome PN2 clade; Underhill et al. 2001) have spread through Egypt into the Near East, the Mediterranean area, and, for some lineages, as far north as Turkey (E3b-M35 Y lineage; Cinnioglu et al. 2004; Luis et al. 2004), probably during several dispersal episodes since the Mesolithic (Cinnioglu et al. 2004; King et al. 2008; Lucotte and Mercier 2003; Luis et al. 2004; Quintana-Murci et al. 1999; Semino et al. 2004; Underhill et al. 2001).

This finding is in agreement with morphological data that suggest that populations with sub-Saharan morphological elements were present in northeastern Africa, from the Paleolithic to at least the early Holocene, and diffused northward to the Levant and Anatolia beginning in the Mesolithic.

Indeed, the rare and incomplete Paleolithic to early Neolithic skeletal specimens found in Egypt—such as the 33,000-year-old Nazlet Khater specimen (Pinhasi and Semal 2000), the Wadi Kubbaniya skeleton from the late Paleolithic site in the upper Nile valley (Wendorf et al. 1986), the Qarunian (Faiyum) early Neolithic crania (Henneberg et al. 1989; Midant-Reynes 2000), and the Nabta specimen from the Neolithic Nabta Playa site in the western desert of Egypt (Henneberg et al. 1980)—show, with regard to the great African biological diversity, similarities with some of the sub-Saharan middle Paleolithic and modern sub-Saharan specimens.

This affinity pattern between ancient Egyptians and sub-Saharans has also been noticed by several other investigators (Angel 1972; Berry and Berry 1967, 1972; Keita 1995) and has been recently reinforced by the study of Brace et al. (2005), which clearly shows that the cranial morphology of prehistoric and recent northeast African populations is linked to sub-Saharan populations (Niger-Congo populations). These results support the hypothesis that some of the Paleolithic–early Holocene populations from northeast Africa were probably descendents of sub-Saharan ancestral populations.

A late Pleistocene–early Holocene northward migration (from Africa to the Levant and to Anatolia) of these populations has been hypothesized from skeletal data (Angel 1972, 1973; Brace et al. 2005) and from archeological data, as indicated by the probable Nile valley origin of the “Mesolithic” (epi-Paleolithic) Mushabi culture found in the Levant (Bar Yosef 1987). This migration finds some support in the presence in Mediterranean populations (Sicily, Greece, southern Turkey, etc.; Patrinos et al. 2001; Schiliro et al. 1990) of the Benin sickle cell haplotype. This haplotype originated in West Africa and is probably associated with the spread of malaria to southern Europe through an eastern Mediterranean route (Salares et al. 2004) following the expansion of both human and mosquito populations brought about by the advent of the Neolithic transition (Hume et al. 2003; Joy et al. 2003; Rich et al. 1998).

This northward migration of northeastern African populations carrying sub-Saharan biological elements is concordant with the morphological homogeneity of the Natufian populations (Bocquentin 2003), which present morphological affinity with sub-Saharan populations (Angel 1972; Brace et al. 2005). In addition, the Neolithic revolution was assumed to arise in the late Pleistocene Natufians and subsequently spread into Anatolia and Europe (Bar-Yosef 2002), and the first Anatolian farmers, Neolithic to Bronze Age Mediterraneans and to some degree other Neolithic–Bronze Age Europeans, show morphological affinities with the Natufians (and indirectly with sub-Saharan populations; Angel 1972; Brace et al. 2005), in concordance with a process of demic diffusion accompanying the extension of the Neolithic revolution (Cavalli-Sforza et al. 1994).

Following the numerous interactions among eastern Mediterranean and Levantine populations and regions, caused by the introduction of agriculture from the Levant into Anatolia and southeastern Europe (Bar-Yosef 2002; Keita and Boyce 2005; King et al. 2008), there was, beginning in the Bronze Age, a period of increasing interactions in the eastern Mediterranean, mainly during the Greek, Roman, and Islamic periods. These interactions resulted in the development of trading networks, military campaigns, and settler colonization (Cruciani et al. 2007; Edwards et al. 2000; Keita and Boyce 2005; King et al. 2008; Lucotte and Mercier 2003; Sahoglu 2005; Waelkens et al. 2006).

Major changes took place during this period, which may have accentuated or diluted the sub-Saharan components of the earlier Anatolian populations. The second option seems more likely, because even though the population from the Sagalassos territorywas interacting with northeastern African and Levantine populations [trade relationships with Egypt (Arndt et al. 2003), involvement of thousands of mercenaries from Pisidia (Sagalassos region) in the war around 300 b.c. between the Ptolemaic kingdom (centered on Egypt) and the Seleucid kingdom (Syria/Mesopotamia/Anatolia), etc.], the major cultural and population interactions involving the Anatolian populations since the Bronze Age occurred with the Mediterranean populations from southeastern Europe, as suggested from historical (cf. historical context) and genetic data (Berkman et al. 2008; Cinnioglu et al. 2004; Di Benedetto et al. 2001; Tambets et al. 2000).

Consequently, one may hypothesize as the most parsimonious explanation that sub-Saharan biological elements were introduced into the Anatolian populations after the Neolithic spread and have been preserved since this time, at least until the 11th–13th century a.d, in the population living in the Sagalassos territory of southwestern Anatolia.

This scenario implies that the affinity between Sagalassos and the two sub-Saharan populations (Gabon and Somalia) is more likely due to the sharing of a common ancestor and that the major changes and increasing interactions in the eastern Mediterranean beginning in the Bronze Age did not erase some of the sub-Saharan elements carried by Anatolian populations, as shown by genetic data (e.g., Cinnioglu et al. 2004; Luis et al. 2004) and the morphological features of our southwestern Anatolian sample.





It was not that long ago when Albino and Mulatto media told us that those "Half-White" and White people in North Africa, the Middle-East, and Arabia, were Berbers, Arabs, Egyptians or Persians. But now, with the conflict between them and European Albinos heating up, it appears that a crack has developed in their common anti-Black armor. Some European Albinos no longer feel the need to continue those parts of Albino Race and History lies, which served to legitimize them as descendants of the aforementioned ancient Black people.

Oghuz Turks

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family. In the 8th century, they formed a tribal confederation conventionally named the Oghuz Yabgu State in Central Asia. The name Oghuz is a Common Turkic word for "tribe". Byzantine sources called the Oghuz the Uzes. By the 10th century, Islamic sources were calling the Muslim, as opposed to shamanist or Christian Oghuz, the Turkmens. By the 12th century this term had passed into Byzantine usage, and the Oghuzes were now overwhelmingly Muslim.

The Oghuz confederation migrated westward from the Jeti-su area after a conflict with the Karluk branch of Uigurs, (Jeti-su/Zhetysu: is the historical name of a part of Central Asia, corresponding to the southeastern part of modern Kazakhstan). The founders of the Ottoman Empire were descendants of the Oghuzes.

Today the residents of Turkey, Iran, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Khorezm, Turkmens of Afghanistan, Balkans, Iraq and Syria are descendants of Oghuz Turks and their language belongs to the Oghuz (also known as southwestern Turkic) group of the Turkic languages family.

Comment - Why this Albino source fails to include the residents of Arabia, Egypt, Lebanon, Israel (Jews are Khazar Turks), Palestine, etc. as also being Turks, is unknown and incorrect.





What is this all about?

Sometime during the 19th century, the Albino people decided to revise Mans history. In their new history: they (the Albinos) became the native peoples of Europe, and in a totally mindless example of intellectual Greed, they also declared that they were also the creators of mans original civilizations - including Egypt.

This revising of history lasted through the 19th. and twentieth centuries. Now in the 21st. century, some institutions are trying to undo that two centuries of lies (perhaps in an effort to lessen the shock of publications like this one). In this case, it is one of the formerly foremost purveyors of Albino lie History - National Geographic. In April of 2013, National Geographic published a study which "Admits" that Africans were the Original settlers of Europe. And Also "Admits" that MODERN Europeans are newcomers. But in "Normal" Albino lie fashion, they refuse to admit that modern Europeans are Central Asian Albinos. But because many people, including some Blacks, won't believe anything unless a White person says so, we include it in our presentation.


Click here for a copy of the study, and a link to the original at NG.





Is this worth reading - is it True?


On the matter of credibility: On first reading, readers of these pages generally feel amazement, the concept of Blacks being the original settlers, and builders of the first civilizations everywhere, including Europe, is particularly unsettling to them. Both Black and White, because they were taught that there were no Blacks in Europe until the Romans brought them. Then some Blacks correctly say: Uh huh, I knew the Whites were lying, and then go on to enjoy their edification. But Whites remain incredulous, they say: this is simply Blacks with no accomplishments, trying to steal White accomplishment and history! They say, if this was true, my Teachers and Professors would have taught it to me. So either this is lies, or the information is so new that my Teachers and Professors don't know about it yet!

Well No, though it may be comforting to believe that your Teachers and Professors are of sufficient character that they would not lie to you, the facts do not support that conclusion. The fact is that European scientists had evidence, and knew from earlier that the 19th century, of the Black mans central role in settling and establishing civilization in Europe and everywhere else. The exhibits below attest to the fact that this knowledge was known over a hundred years ago. So either your Teachers and Professors are indeed liars, or they were very poorly educated.





By Professor G. F. SCOTT ELLIOT, M.A., B.Sc., F.L.S., F.R.G.S.

With Seventy Illustrations and Diagrams. Demy 8vo. 7/6 net.


The Aurignacians found the Moustierian or Neander-thaler in France, and during all the changes sketched above, the former seem to have held their own in that country. After the Wurm Ice Age the Aurignacians modified their weapons and mode of life, and, after the theory which we have adopted, became the men of La Madeleine.

These Aurignacians and their Magdalenian descendants pervaded all Central and Southern Europe. Their remains have also been discovered in Valetta (Malta), in Phoenicia (Nahr Antelias), and elsewhere, as we shall try to show later. But during this long period of time two other races also succeeded in entering France and Italy. These were a “ negroid,” perhaps pygmy, folk and the men of Solutrean.

We have seen that the Aurignacian was originally an African, and if he traversed North Africa on his way from Egypt and Mesopotamia, it would have been a very remarkable fact if he had not come in contact with the African pygmy or his ancestors, for the Bushman, Wam-battu, and the other pygmies are the oldest African race known to us.

The “ negroids ” discovered by Dr. Verneau in the Grotte du Grimaldi, though differing greatly from modern Bushmen, show that the Aurignacians were acquainted with a negroid stock, which may perhaps be assumed to be an ancestor of, or allied to, the pygmy. It is difficult to say exactly what was the relation between the Aurignacian and this “ negroid ” race.

Moreover, since the discovery of this burial, characteristic skulls of the same negroid affinity have been found in Spain, in Brittany (of Neolithic date), at Sierra (not earlier than the thirteenth century), in Sardinia, at Ostorf, and perhaps in Caithness.


































Modern Indo-European languages - which include English - originated in Turkey about 9,000 years ago, researchers say.


A language family is a group of languages that arose from a common ancestor, known as the proto-language. Linguists identify these families by trawling through modern languages for words of similar sound that often describe the same thing, like water and wasser (German). These shared words - or cognates - represent our language inheritance.

According to the Ethnologue database, more than 100 language families exist. The Indo-European family is one of the largest families - more than 400 languages spoken in at least 60 countries - and its origins are unclear. The Steppes, or Kurgan theorists hold that the proto-language originated in the Steppes of Russia, north of the Caspian Sea, about 5,000 years ago.

The Anatolia hypothesis - first proposed in the late 1980s by Prof Colin Renfrew (now Lord Renfrew) - suggests an origin in the Anatolian region of Turkey about 3,000 years earlier. To determine which competing theory was the most likely, Dr Quentin Atkinson from the University of Auckland and his team interrogated language evolution using phylogenetic analyses - more usually used to trace virus epidemics.

Commenting on the paper, Prof Mark Pagel, a Fellow of the Royal Society from the University of Reading who was involved in earlier published phylogenetic studies, said: "This is a superb application of methods taken from evolutionary biology to understand a problem in cultural evolution - the origin and expansion of the Indo-European languages. "This paper conclusively shows that the Indo-European languages are at least 8-9,500 years old, and arose, as has long been speculated, in the Anatolian region of what is modern-day Turkey and spread outwards from there."

Their study is reported in Science.

Mapping the Origins and Expansion of the Indo-European Language Family



Concerning Literature

Egyptians, Sumerians, Mohenjo-daroans, Harappans, and Cretans, Elamites, Anatolians, and Nubians, were literate 3,000 years, 4,000 years, who knows how many thousands of years, before the world ever heard of Greeks or Romans. And there is ample evidence of their literacy.

Yet there is not one single entry: describing any of the people of their times, whether it be friends, foes, or invaders: or even more incredulously, there is not one single entry describing invading Whites in any of their literature.

Contrast that with Greek and Roman writings, in which these NEWLY literate people, describe EVERYTHING and EVERYONE!

The discrepancy is of course, not accidental, nor for lack of material.

Hopefully, the White man has simply withheld this material, and not destroyed it.



Did Anatolians invent STEEL?

The earliest known production of steel is seen in pieces of ironware excavated from an archaeological site in Anatolia (Kaman-Kalehöyük) and are nearly 4,000 years old, dating from 1800 BC. It is a “tell” or “mound site” that was occupied during the Bronze Age - Iron Age - and Ottoman periods. In 2005, metallurgical analysis of iron fragments found at Kaman-Kalehöyük in 1994 and dating to 1800 B.C. revealed that some of these fragments were composed of carbon steel; they currently form the world's earliest known evidence for steel manufacture.

Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon containing less than 2% carbon and 1% manganese and small amounts of silicon, phosphorus, sulphur and oxygen. Steel is the world's most important engineering and construction material.

In a newscast relating to Bessemer Alabama, it was reported that the town was named after the inventor of "Steel", which of course is NOT true.

Henry Bessemer, in full Sir Henry Bessemer, (born January 19, 1813, Charlton, Hertfordshire, England—died March 15, 1898, London), inventor and engineer who developed the first process for manufacturing steel inexpensively (1856), leading to the development of the Bessemer converter. He was knighted in 1879.



In Anatolia there are signs of human habitation in caves from at least the stone age. there are also rock paintings and engravings of people and animals on the walls of these caves, such as those near Antalya and elsewhere.


















Gobekli Tepe

To date, the most astonishing find is at Göbekli Tepe (Turkish for "Hill with a Tummy"), which is a hilltop sanctuary built on the highest point of an elongated mountain ridge about 15km northeast of the town of Şanlıurfa (Urfa) in southeast Turkey. This site, currently undergoing excavation by German and Turkish archaeologists, is said to have been erected by hunter-gatherers at perhaps 11,500 B.C. This is believed to be before the advent of sedentism (permanent year-round settlement). That claim however, does not seem logical. Note the finely carved pillars to support the roof, it doesn't seem like Hunter Gatherer Nomads would have acquired the skills to do such work. What use would Hunter Gatherer Nomads have for such a structure? Hunter Gatherer Nomads did not store food, they moved to find food, how would Hunter Gatherer Nomads feed themselves while building the site? In any event, it is currently considered the oldest known shrine or temple complex in the world. And the planet's oldest known example of monumental architecture.




Together with the site of Nevalı Çori, (which has since been inundated by the waters of a Dam across the Euphrates), it has revolutionized our understanding of the Anatolian stone age. At the oldest level, the buildings at Göbekli Tepe contain monolithic “T” shaped pillars, which link coarsely built walls, which form circular or oval buildings. So far four such buildings, with diameters between 33 ft. and 100 ft. have been uncovered. Geophysical studies suggest 16 more structures exist there.




The later Stratum II, dated to Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period (7,500 - 6,000 B.C.), revealed houses or temples that are round megalithic (large stone) buildings . The walls are made of unworked dry stone and include numerous T-shaped monolithic pillars of limestone that are up to 10 ft. high. Another bigger pair of pillars is placed in the center of the structure. The floors are made of terrazzo (burnt lime), and there is a low Bench running along the whole of the outside wall. The relief’s (carvings) on the pillars include foxes, lions, cattle, wild boars, herons, ducks, scorpions, ants and snakes. Some of the relief’s had been deliberately erased, maybe in preparation for new pictures. There are freestanding sculptures as well, that may represent wild boars or foxes. Comparable statues have been discovered in Nevalı Çori and Nahal Hemar.



















Nevali Cori

At Nevali Cori, the local limestone was carved into numerous statues and stele, including a more than life-sized bare human head with a snake or sikha-like tuft, (sikha- a long tuft, or lock of hair left on top or on the back of the shaven head). There is also a statue of a bird. Some of the pillars also have carved relief's, including human hands. The free-standing anthropomorphic figures (attribution of human characteristics to non-human creatures), which are made of limestone, are Comparable to sculptures found at Göbekli Tepe; together they are the oldest known life-sized sculptures.
























Also found at Nevali Cori, (pictures have not been released), were several hundred small clay figurines (about 2 in. high), most of them depicting humans, these have been interpreted as votive offerings. These figures were fired at temperatures between 500-600° C, which suggests the development of ceramic technology before the advent of pottery proper.




Mythological considerations
The excavator of the site, Klaus Schmidt, has engaged in some speculation regarding the belief systems of the people that created Göbekli Tepe. Based on comparisons with other shrines and settlements, he assumes that they had shamanic practices, and suggests that the T-shaped pillars may represent mythical creatures, perhaps ancestors. Whereas he sees a fully articulated belief in gods, only developing later in Mesopotamia, which has the associated extensive temples and palaces.

This corresponds with the old Sumerian belief that agriculture, animal husbandry and weaving had been brought to humankind from the sacred mountain of Duku (Dulkug), which was inhabited by Annuna-deities, which were very ancient gods without individual names. Klaus Schmidt identifies this story as a primeval myth that preserves a partial memory of the Neolithic. It is also apparent that the animal and other images are peaceful in character and give no indications of organized violence.

Interestingly; the complex was not gradually abandoned and simply forgotten. Instead, it was deliberately covered over with soil. The builders obviously wanted it preserved for posterity.


















Lake Burdur

Other Sites like Hacilar near Lake Burdur, have some of the earliest actual settlements, these from about 8,000 B.C. The people here were living in mud-brick houses with plastered walls and floors. Their homes were painted and burnished, like those in contemporary Jericho in Canaan. These earliest settlements were characterized by the planting of barley and sometimes wheat. But they produced no pottery, and the only domestic animal was the dog.

Afterward, the site seems to have been abandoned for nearly a thousand years. But was then re-occupied in the late phase of the Stone Age, by villagers of a far more sophisticated culture. These people had advanced agriculture and pottery. Their houses were symmetrically arranged, and these people produced human-looking and large sized, fertility and goddess figures.


Catal Huyuk

At the site of Çatal hüyük, there is evidence of a town that was occupied from about 7,500 B.C. Here apart from extensive evidence of the obsidian tool industry, we also find an early form of metallurgy. Lead and copper were shaped into ornaments like pendants, beads, rings and small utilitarian tools. Like at Lake Burdur, we find houses with very elaborate architectural features in each space; like wall paintings, platforms, and cult spaces. The small family houses are knitted together with no streets, occasional open spaces between the buildings were used as garbage disposal areas. The houses had their entrances through a hole in the roof, which was accessed by a ladder. The hearth and the oven were placed directly below this hole in the roof, so that the hole in the roof also acted as the chimney for the house.

The housetops were mud-plastered terraces, which also acted as the communal outdoor space for the family. The houses were mostly of the same size and arrangement; each house had a rectangular room with a narrow storage space or a compartmentalized space along one side. The large rectangular living room would also have a built-in platform, used for a variety of activities in the house. The houses were built of a timber frame of posts and beams, which divided the walls into a series of horizontal and vertical panels, which were then filled with mudbrick and plastered over. Though the houses are built one against each other, they almost never share walls; each room has its own walls independent of the adjoining structure.





Some of the more elaborately decorated rooms were shrine rooms, which have plaster reliefs on the walls: these were made on a framework of reeds. A goddess figure giving birth is the most famous one; Rams and Stags were also common. There were also pillars with plaster bull’s heads and horns, as well as some paintings that depict the daily life and the religious beliefs of the Catal Huyuk inhabitants. The walls and platforms were plastered with fine white mud plaster over and over again, in some cases 120 layers of plaster were found on a single wall. So re-plastering the walls and floors annually or seasonally must have had some symbolic value for the society. Some of the walls were painted with hunting scenes, dominated by a huge red bull, and a series of small male figures.





Another painted scene is of large stylized vulture-like birds depicted with small headless human beings; this is interpreted as a funerary ritual. When people died in Catal Huyuk they took the body out of the settlement and left it out in the open for birds to consume the flesh: and only after that, the bones were brought back to the house and buried under the platforms. [This is the exact funerary practice of later Persians in Elam, and Hebrews in Canaan, see below].

One of the most significant aspects of Çatal Huyük houses is the practice of burial under the floor of living spaces, usually with elaborate grave goods and sometimes, organic materials. At times, the burials are so intense that in one building, a total of 67 individuals were buried under one room, in a space of less than 30 square meters. Many fertility goddess figurines were also found, made of clay, and very fragile, (fired at low temperature), representing an obese female with exaggerated sexual organs: some depicted in the state of giving birth and accompanied by lions.






















Ancestral Relationship between the Khoisan Grimaldi of Anatolia and the Hebrews and Persians.



The ancient Anatolian Burial Practice of de-fleshing the body, and then placing the bones in a container for burial: is unique and practiced by only two later cultures. Principal among them are the Persians of the Zoroastrian religion. Their practice was to place the body where it may be eaten by scavenging birds and animals or weathered to its bare bones, and then placed in a container for burial.

In Bombay India, the Parsis (as the Indian descendants of the Persian refugees from the Arab/Turk invasion are called) maintain “towers of silence” which are high circular towers. The dead are carried to the top, and funeral servants place them on stone beds surrounding a central pit. After the hovering vultures have stripped the flesh from the bones, the bones are gathered and placed into the central pit.






The Hebrews - Around two thousand years ago, during the time that Jesus Christ lived, Hebrew burial tradition shifted to include a secondary burial in Ossuaries. This burial practice involved collecting the deceased’s bones after the flesh had been left to decompose and desiccate, and then placing them inside an Ossuary. The Ossuary was then placed into a loculus – a type of satchel.

These precise burial practices are unique to those mentioned people, and to no other people of the world. Logically then, the question must be asked: are they related? It is no stretch to connect the Hebrews with these ancient Anatolians: From the time of the less ancient Sumerians, the Hebrews (formally called Amorites), were known to be a nomadic people inhabiting the area formed by the conjunction of the borders of modern day Turkey, Syria, and Iraq. The Bible suggests that the city of Harran (which is in the center of that area) is in the homeland of the Hebrews, and referrers to it by name.


Genesis 11:31

"And Terah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran his son's son, and Sarai his daughter in law, his son Abram's wife; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan; and they came unto Harran, and dwelt there".


Less sure is the connection with the ancient Persians (Medes (Mada) and Persians (Parsua), who appeared in ancient Elam around 900 B.C. In favor of their connection: aside from their unique burial practice, is Persia’s close proximity to Anatolia, and the great Persian King Cyrus’s benevolent treatment of the Hebrew captives when he took power: (He freed them and instructed them to return to their homeland and rebuild their temple – and paid for their journey). These things, combined with the fact that the origin of the Persians has never been ascertained – they had to come from somewhere - suggest an ancestral connection.


Those wishing to pursue an understanding of the Human Journey, and Specifics of the ancient East African migrations, which led to Modern Man's colonization of the entire world; please visit the National Geographic – Genographic Project – Atlas of the Human Journey. Though as one would expect, when it comes to European and Anatolian (Turkey) settlement, it is not only inaccurate, it is downright Racist. But what would you expect?



Please visit the "Additional Material Area" for many more photographs of each civilization, and related material <Click>



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