Egyptians, Sumerians, Mohenjo-daroans, Harappans, and Cretans, Elamites, and Nubians, were literate 3,000 years, 4,000 years, who knows how many thousands of years, before the world ever heard of Greeks or Romans. And there is ample evidence of their literacy.
Yet there is not one single entry: describing any of the people of their times, whether it be friends, foes, or invaders: or even more incredulously, there is not one single entry describing invading Whites in any of their literature.
Contrast that with Greek and Roman writings, in which these NEWLY literate people, after suffering through the "Dark ages" caused by the Albinos invasion, describe EVERYTHING and EVERYONE - except themselves!
These discrepancies are of course, not accidental, nor for lack of material. Hopefully, the White man has simply withheld this material, and not destroyed it.
On a related matter:
We the lied-to and oppressed, often comfort ourselves by believing that things are getting better, and perhaps in some ways that is so. But in regards to the Albinos trying to steal Black history, well, in that regard things are definitely getting worst!
It comes as a shock to some, that the current, and very false assertion by the Albinos that they are native to Europe, is NEW! Surprisingly, Albino scholars of only a hundred years ago, freely admitted that Albinos MOVED into Europe, and were NOT native to those lands. While they were in error on other things, some even correctly identified the Albino homeland as Central Asia.
Please note this example:
The North American Review
The North American Review (NAR) was the first literary magazine in the United States. Founded in Boston in 1815 by journalist Nathan Hale and others, it was published continuously until 1940.
Please note this entry from:
The North American Review Volume 0139 Issue 334 (Sept 1884)
ANCIENT TYPES OF MAN
MAN'S PLACE IN NATURE AND OTHER ANTHROPOLOGICAL ESSAYS
In order to neglect no point respecting the form of this fossil skull, we may observe that, from the first, the elongated and narrow form of the forehead attracted our attention. In fact, the slight elevation of the frontal, its narrowness, and the form of the orbit, approximate it more nearly to the cranium of an Ethiopian than to that of a European.
CIVILIZATION OR BARBARISM: AN AUTHENTIC ANTHROPOLOGY
The Grimaldi Negroids have left their numerous traces all over Europe and Asia, from the Iberian Peninsula to Lake Baykal in Siberia, passing through France, Austria, the Crimea, and the Basin of Don, etc. In these last two regions, the late Soviet Professor Mikhail Gerasimov, a scholar of rare objectivity, identified the Negroid type from skulls found in the Middle Mousterian period.
Realizing that many people still cling to the myth that White people were the original inhabitants of Europe; there are many links to scientific studies, scattered throughout this site, which definitively prove that belief false - simply click on the link to read the study. (On some pages the studies are printed at the bottom of the page). In this sites pages we provide true history - as best as it is known, supported by authentic artifacts.
The following are excerpts from the book “MYTHS OF CRETE & PRE-HELLENIC EUROPE By DONALD A. MACKENZIE” (1917). Like all White writers of history, he struggles to tell Black history, without actually mentioning Black people. As an example “Pre-Hellenic” actually means “Pre-Whites” as the Hellenes were the first of the White Central Asians to reach Western Europe. But since many of his factual observations are accurate, we begin with these excerpts from his book.
Quote: It is only within recent years that the necessary archaeological data have been available which enables students of ancient civilization to draw with some degree of confidence that Crete was the birthplace of Aegean civilization, which radiated in the pre-Hellenic times throughout Europe. Although it has been demonstrated that the Cretan leaven was in existence and at work at the dawn of the Egyptian Dynastic Age, and when the Sumerians were achieving their earliest triumphs in the Tigro-Euphratean valley, we are still confronted with the problem of remote origin.
The earliest settlers in Crete had, as their artifacts demonstrate, already obtained a comparatively high degree of Neolithic culture. Houses were built of stone as well as of wattles daubed with clay, a sea trade was in existence, for obsidian was imported from Melos, and a section of the community had adopted the agricultural mode of life.
The earliest settlement of people at Knossos has been assigned to about 10,000 B.C, an approximate dating which is based on the evidence of the archaeological strata. But the earliest traces of an artistic culture in Europe belong to a still more remote age. Although during the vast periods of the Neolithic, or Late Stone Age, there existed savage communities, just as happens to be the case at the present day in various parts of the world, there were also, as in Crete, Egypt, and Babylonia, refined and progressive peoples who were already "heirs of all the Ages". The Ages when ancient Europe passed through stages of climatic oscillations of such pronounced character that the remains of mankind are found in strata yielding alternately tropical, temperate, and Arctic flora and fauna. The period in question, the lengthiest in the history of civilization, is the archaeological Paleolithic, or Early Stone Age.
Towards its close, for which the minimum dating is 20,000 B.C., there existed in Europe at least two peoples, whose cultures are referred to as Aurignacian and Magdalenian. A stage called Azilian links the Palæolithic with the Neolithic Age, and the continuity of culture from the earliest times is now generally regarded as an established fact. The story of Cretan civilization may constitute, as has been said, the first chapter of European history. But the "Introduction" is derived from the Paleolithic Age, before and during the Fourth Glacial Epoch of the geologists.
The links with Crete are so close and suggestive that writers like Angelo Mosso have expressed the belief in the Neolithic and Cretan origin of Aurignacian and Magdalenian art. But the geologists have established beyond a shadow of doubt that the civilization of which this art is an eloquent expression must be assigned to the latter part of the Pleistocene period, when the reindeer roamed through the valleys of France. Those ancient Paleolithic hunters were skilled artists and carvers of bone and ivory. They painted and engraved on cave roofs the figures of animals with a realism and freedom which were never surpassed in Greece.
They also carved ivory female figurines in the round which are worthy of comparison with similar artistic products of Egypt, and not always to their disadvantage. "The resemblances", writes Mosso, "between the most ancient female figures in France and the Neolithic figures of Crete and Egypt are very striking." Among the rock pictures of women he sees "the girdle and the Egyptian mode of hairdressing". Describing a Paleolithic painting, he writes: "The women's hair flows down upon their shoulders like that of the Minoan women; the bosom is uncovered and the breasts much developed. The triangular shape of the heads indicates a hood or a kind of mitre. Two of them wear a bracelet on the upper arm near the elbow, and all have a very slender waist, with the body shaped like an hour-glass." He also comments in another instance on the skirts, which were also characteristic of Crete. Comparisons between the Cretan frescoes and the Paleolithic cave-paintings of Spain and France have likewise been made by the Abbé Breuil, Don Juan Cabre Aguila, and other Continental archeologists.
Myths of Crete and Pre-Hellenic Europe, by Donald A. Mackenzie (1917): continued.
THE influence of Ægean culture, which assumed its specific character in Crete, extended as far distant as Troad, that strip of north-western Anatolian coastland which came under the sway of the Trojans. In the Early Minoan period Crete was in contact with Egypt on the one hand and with Hissarlik (Troy) and the Cyclades on the other--pupil of the former, teacher of the latter. It is possible that Troy's earliest connection with Crete goes back to the Neolithic Period, for finds have been made in the stratum of the first city of flakes and small artifacts of obsidian. This highly-prized stone was probably carried over the sea from Melos rather than along an overland trade route from Sinai.
It would appear that there was a certain amount of regular shipping traffic on the Ægean Sea in Neolithic times. Crete, as we have seen, imported obsidian from Melos long before the introduction of metal working. The beginnings of the trade can be traced at Magasa, where the flakes were found to be associated with an extremely crude pottery of great antiquity, and it was well developed apparently during the later stage of Neolithic culture, to which the obsidian knives from Knossos are assigned.
The early peoples who reached Crete probably came by way of the Cyclades, either from the Anatolian or Grecian coasts. Before they accomplished this feat, the art of navigation must have advanced considerably. If it is held, on the other hand, that they passed direct oversea from Cyprus or Libya, we must conclude that they were skilled mariners who possessed well-equipped vessels and were quite capable of conducting a sea traffic from the very beginning. Perhaps when the Cretan inscriptions can be read some light will be thrown on this aspect of the problem.
Traffic by the sea, as well as by the land routes, must have been greatly stimulated after the knowledge of how to work metals became widespread. Ships could then be constructed more stoutly and with greater celerity, and must consequently have increased in number. Pharaoh Sneferu's order for a new fleet of forty odd vessels to convey timber from Phœnicia is an interesting example of the manner in which ambitious monarchs might strive for mercantile supremacy. No doubt it was in consequence of the growing competition that experienced seafarers made voyages of exploration and opened up new routes in all directions. Malta, as we have seen, received obsidian from Melos; it also imported jade, which probably came from Anatolia. Jade was carried as well to Sicily, and as the Cretans imported liparite from the Lipari islands, after they had established a connection with Egypt, it was probably by them that jade objects were distributed westward.
Whence was the bronze obtained by the Cretans? Was it from Egypt or Anatolia? Both Crete and Troy were able soon after the dawn of their Bronze Ages to import silver, which during the Old Kingdom Period was rarer than gold in Egypt. The silver may have come from the same region as tin. One possible source of supplies of silver was Cilicia, where silver mines are still worked; the other was Spain, in which country evidence has been forthcoming of early commercial relations with Crete.
But although copper could be found in Crete, the tin, as has been indicated, had to be imported. "By the beginning of the Bronze Age", writes Dr. Mackenzie in this connection, "the valley of the Rhone must have played a dominant role of communication between the great world of the Mediterranean and the north; by that time it was probably already the high continental trade route towards the tin mines of Britain." Angelo Mosso also favours the hypothesis that Crete's early supplies came from England. "We know the road", he says, "followed by the caravans bringing English tin through France to the mouth of the Rhone at the end of the Neolithic period, while no trace of any trade in tin has so far been discovered in the East." Mosso's reference to the "East" applies to "the mountains of China where tin is found".
Although archæologists are less inclined nowadays than they were a generation ago to believe in the existence of Neolithic trade-routes which extended from the borders of China to Brittany, or to connect certain races with relics of similar character found in widely separated districts, there can be little doubt regarding the existence of commercial relations between different cultural areas. The introduction of metal appears to have done much to stimulate international trade. In the Early Bronze Age the influence of the Ægean, which may have "inspired every stage of culture" at Hissarlik, as Mr. Hogarth suggests, appears to have penetrated Thrace. Evidence has been forthcoming that two main trade-routes crossed Germany, one from the head of the Adriatic, and the other from the lower Danube valley. It has been suggested that some of the amber found in Crete came down these trade routes from the Baltic. France was similarly crossed by the Rhone valley trade-route, down which, in time, tin from Cornwall was carried. That the Cretans were the earliest seafarers to come into direct touch with these routes is suggested by various interesting links of evidence. The most remarkable are the Egyptian glass beads found in South Germany, and the Egyptian blue-glaze beads taken from ancient graves on Salisbury Plain, which will be dealt with in a later chapter, as they are connected with the Late Minoan Period.
Certain Continental archæologists incline to the belief that not only Crete but even Egypt was in direct touch with Western Europe at an extremely remote period. Summarizing their views, Angelo Mosso writes: "The vases found at Amerejo in Spain have the characteristic form of the Egyptian vases of the close of the Neolithic Age. The resemblance of the Egyptian idols with those of Crete and the Continent is an established fact; the burial sites are similar; the flat copper axes of Egypt cannot be distinguished from those of the Continent; the evolution of art in Southern France and in Spain went on during the Neolithic Age, and we know that navigation was general on the Mediterranean in the times preceding the introduction of copper-all these data give good reason to suppose that the pre-Dynastic Egyptians had relations with the west which enabled them to procure cassiterite, which when mixed with copper rendered it harder. . . . We hope", he adds, "that new discoveries may throw light on the relations of Egypt with England." End quote.
Note: Since the writing of the book, similar figures made of ivory with the hooded female, have been found as far East as Mal'ta Siberia - See first photo above. These figures can be traced to the migrations of the first European - Grimaldi man. Click here for information on Grimaldi man >>>
As with the other ancients, over time the Minoan's progressed to the point where they became master builders. One of their great achievements was the aqueduct’s that brought fresh water from the mountains to their capital "Knossos", which was many miles away. These aqueducts supplied the water for some of the worlds first "flush" toilets as well as other uses. At the peak of Minoan civilization, paved roads and multistoried townhouses were prominent. Archaeological evidence suggests that Minoan society was remarkably peaceful: their towns had no fortifications.
Please note: Modern White people have absolutely nothing to do with the following history. Though they are also Whites from central Asia (Albinos actually), just like the first Whites in Europe (who came circa 1,200 B.C.), they came at a much later date: circa 200 - 800 (A.D.). These modern people are the Germanics and Slavs, who were chased into Europe by the Huns of Asia. The last of these people, the Turks, were chased into the west by the Mongolians of Genghis Khan. Please see the Etruria-1 and Eastern Europe sections on the main menu for the history and genesis of those people.
Those modern Albinos who will acknowledge the ancient Blacks of Europe, encourage us to believe that the ancients were wiped-out, and the remaining absorbed by the Germanics, when they sacked Rome in 476. Romulus Augustus, the last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, was deposed by Odoacer, a Germanic chieftain. In the East, the Byzantine end came when on April 2, 1453, Turkic Sultan Mehmed's army of some 80,000 men and large numbers of irregulars laid siege to the city of Constantinople. Despite a desperate last-ditch defense of the city by the massively outnumbered Christian forces, Constantinople finally fell to the Ottomans after a two-month siege on 29 May 1453. The last Byzantine Emperor, Constantine XI Palaiologos (though Byzantines were originally Greeks, by then, Slavs had made significant inroads), was last seen casting off his imperial regalia and throwing himself into hand-to-hand combat after the walls of the city were taken.
What the Albinos are trying to hide, is that Black rule in Europe lasted well after the medieval, and was only broken by the race wars, disguised by Albino historians as religious wars, of the 1600s. In continental Europe, these were primarily the thirty years wars. In Britain there were many separate wars.
Note: As our knowledge increases we find more White lies as relates to ethnicity: The Franks and Frisians were native Black people. Undoubtedly in the future, we will find more White lies.
Germanic countries - Great Britain, Netherlands, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Belgium, France, Spain, portugal, Scandinavians (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Iceland, Faroe Islanders, not Sami).
Slavic peoples are classified geographically and linguistically into West Slavic (including Czechs, Kashubians, Moravians, Poles, Silesians, Slovaks and Sorbs), East Slavic (including Belarusians, Russians, Rusyns and Ukrainians), and South Slavic (including Bosniaks, Bulgarians, Croats, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Serbs and Slovenes).
Slavic countries - Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Greece, Hungary, Macedonia, Albania, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Georgia, Kosovo, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.
Italy - mixed Slav/Germanic
Greece - Mixed, mostly Slav
Armenia - mixed Slav/Turk
Algeria - mixed Berber/Germanic
Tunisia - mixed Germanic/Berber
Turkic peoples - Göktürks, Seljuks, Khazars (Jews), Mughals, Azerbaijani, Bashkir, Chuvash, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Uighur, Uzbek, and Sakha, Hephthalites.
Turkic Countries - Turkey, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Northern Cyprus (Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus).
Countries with large populations of ethnic Turks and Turkic culture:
Turkey, Egypt, Iran, Libya, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Bahrain.
The lineage of the Ancient Greeks is always a source of controversy. In the Histories of Herodotus, he clearly identifies the lineage of each major Greek tribe. These books are considered one of the seminal works of history in Western literature. Written from the 450s to the 420s B.C, in the Ionic dialect of classical Greek. Here we have excerpted quotes from Herodotus Histories to clearly ethnically define each tribe of the ancient Greeks.
Note: from the link above, we know that the Hellenes were NOT Whites, they just accepted Whites into their midst. Herodotus refers to the Whites as Barbarians, but if we used that term, it would be confusing to those who know the Hellenes as Whites. Since the Hellenes and others, came to be at least part White, we will continue to use Hellene.
The Early Cycladic culture developed on parallel lines to the Early Minoan. Thanks to obsidian from Melos, marble from many islands, and local sources of gold, silver, and copper, the Cycladic islanders rapidly became prosperous. As in Crete, the Early Bronze Age merged without incident into the Middle Bronze Age.
The Early Cycladic period is celebrated principally for its statuettes and vases carved from the brilliant coarse-crystalled marble of these islands. The statuettes, mostly of goddesses, are among the finest products of the Greek Bronze Age. They owe their charm to the extreme simplification of bodily forms. The typical “Cycladic idol” is a naked female, lying with her head back, her arms crossed over her breasts. These figures vary in size from a few inches to more than six feet in length.
Mainland Greece probably received some of its Bronze Age settlers from the Cyclades, but the two cultures soon diverged. A prosperous era arose about 2,500 B.C, and lasted until about 2,200. Sculpture was overshadowed by pottery, metalwork, and architecture among the early arts. During the Middle Cycladic period, the Cyclades suffered a diminution in prosperity and seem to have become politically subordinate to Crete. Two waves of peoples seem to have descended on the Greek mainland, one about 2,200 B.C, and the other about 2,000 BC. They destroyed much and for long contributed little to Greece's artistic heritage. The pottery of this period, however, is of high quality.
Cyprus is the mythical birthplace of Aphrodite, Adonis and home to King Cinyras, Teucer and Pygmalion. The earliest confirmed site of human activity is Aetokremnos, situated on the south coast, indicating that hunter-gatherers were active on the island from around 10,000 B.C, with settled, village communities dating from 8,200 B.C. The arrival of the first human’s correlates with the extinction of the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants, the skulls of which gave rise to the Cyclops myth.
Water wells discovered by archaeologists in western Cyprus, are believed to be among the oldest in the world, dated at 9,000 to 10,500 years old. They are said to demonstrate the sophistication of early settlers, and their heightened appreciation for the environment. Remains of an eight months old cat, were discovered buried with its human owner, at a separate Neolithic site in Cyprus. The grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, predating ancient Egyptian civilization and pushing back the earliest known feline-human association significantly.
There were several fluxes of population and settlement, as well as newcomers to the island during the Neolithic age, although earthquakes caused the infrastructure to fail around 3,800 B.C. Several waves of incoming peoples followed, including some from Asia minor which strengthened the metal working crafts on the island. Although finds from this time are rare, those finds are of high quality. Later, the Bronze Age was heralded by the arrival of more Anatolians who came to the island around 2,400 B.C.
In the Early Cypriot, the only surviving sculptures are a series of steatite cruciform figures of a mother goddess (3,000–2,500 B.C.), stylized in much the same way as contemporary Cycladic idols, from which they may have been derived. The Middle Cypriot period was a development of the Early Cypriot. As on the mainland, no important art apart from pottery has survived.
THE VANISHING EVIDENCE OF CLASSICAL AFRICAN CIVILIZATIONS
by Prof. Manu Ampim
The widespread damage to the temple images has allowed Egyptologists to argue from such sources as the temple evidence that ancient Egypt was a multi-racial society and therefore belongs to the world’s heritage and not necessarily to African history. There are probably about a million tourists each year who visit Egypt and Nubia, and they get a totally false view of the identity of the builders of these great civilizations, largely because the evidence of the builders’ Black origin is disappearing. This vanishing evidence has enabled dishonest Egyptologists and tour guides to misrepresent the identity of the founders and builders of ancient Egypt by selectively pointing out the “non-African” images on the walls. Actually, the images which appear to look “non-African” have undergone a racial make-over and look nothing like they did originally. These images have been crudely recarved by European and Arab conspirators who work hard to eliminate all traces of African facial features. Only through exhaustive first-hand research can one demonstrate from the surviving on-site temple evidence that ancient Egypt was a Black civilization.
The altering of Black (African) facial features and the lightening of the skin colors of painted reliefs inside the tombs are central aspects of the conspiracy to destroy the memory of classical African civilizations. The two main conspirator groups carrying out these acts are European and American research teams, and local government workers. Throughout Egypt and Nubia, the tomb images have suffered different levels of decay and destruction. In places such as Giza the tombs are closed as there is little left to see; in Tell Amarna the tomb carvings are in an advanced state of decay; in El Kab and Aswan many of the images have been systematically defaced; and in Beni Hassan only 4 of the 39 tombs are open because the rest are badly damaged. The only major location which has escaped serious tomb damage is Sakkara, but this may not remain true in the future because the conspirators’ work is not complete, until they have destroyed or defaced all the evidence of classical African civilizations.
The problem of deterioration of the Kings Valley (KV) tombs has led to a growing international movement to build replica tombs and close the original structures. The tomb replication project will likely be implemented in the future. Under this plan, the popular tombs which have suffered irreparable damage, such as the tomb of Tutankhamen, will be permanently closed to the public. Once they are closed, the only persons who will have access to the original KV tombs will be Egyptian government officials and workers, and “qualified” researchers. The completion of this tomb replication project will be a major step in further erasing the memory of a Black Egypt. These replica tombs, with the lightened colors and remade facial features, will graphically demonstrate that the evidence of classical African civilizations is vanishing. This of course, holds true for the Minoan and all other Black civilizations.
(Note the Libyan and Asiatic are depicted as White)
Note on the coloration of Minoan females.
The depicted females are NOT Caucasian or White! Minoan artists ALWAYS depicted females in light color. Egyptians also SOMETIMES depicted females in light color (see below). Whether this convention was to clearly distinguish females from males, or perhaps because of some religious significance is unknown.
Above: the boy (with side lock), like his father, is painted brown. The daughter (note vagina slit), like her mother, is painted a light color.
C. Loring Brace *, Noriko Seguchi Conrad B. Quintyn , Sherry C. Fox , A. Russell Nelson , Sotiris K. Manolis , and Pan Qifeng
* Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109; Department of Anthropology, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812; Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Bloomsburg, PA 17815-1301; Weiner Laboratory, The American School of Classical Studies at Athens, GR-106 76 Athens, Greece; || Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109; ** Faculty of Biology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, GR-157 81 Athens, Greece; and Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100710, People's Republic of China
Communicated by Kent V. Flannery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, November 11, 2005 (received for review September 20, 2005)
Many human craniofacial dimensions are largely of neutral adaptive significance, and an analysis of their variation can serve as an indication of the extent to which any given population is genetically related to or differs from any other. When 24 craniofacial measurements of a series of human populations are used to generate neighbor-joining dendrograms, it is no surprise that all modern European groups, ranging all of the way from Scandinavia to eastern Europe and throughout the Mediterranean to the Middle East, show that they are closely related to each other. The surprise is that the Neolithic peoples of Europe and their Bronze Age successors are not closely related to the modern inhabitants, although the prehistoric/modern ties are somewhat more apparent in southern Europe. It is a further surprise that the Epipalaeolithic Natufian of Israel from whom the Neolithic realm was assumed to arise has a clear link to Sub-Saharan Africa. Basques and Canary Islanders are clearly associated with modern Europeans. When canonical variates are plotted, neither sample ties in with Cro-Magnon as was once suggested. The data treated here support the idea that the Neolithic moved out of the Near East into the circum-Mediterranean areas and Europe by a process of demic diffusion but that subsequently the in situ residents of those areas, derived from the Late Pleistocene inhabitants, absorbed both the agricultural life way and the people who had brought it.
We Are Not Our Ancestors: Evidence for Discontinuity between Prehistoric and Modern Europeans
The model of European genetic ancestry has recently shifted away from the Neolithic diffusion model towards an emphasis on autochthonous Paleolithic origins. However, this new paradigm utilizes genetic reconstructions based primarily on contemporary populations and, furthermore, is often promoted without regard to the findings of ancient DNA studies. These ancient DNA studies indicate that contemporary European ancestry is not a living fossil of the Paleolithic maternal deme ; rather, demographic events during the Neolithic and post-Neolithic periods appear to have had substantial impact on the European genetic record. In addition, evolutionary processes, including genetic drift, adaptive selection and disease susceptibility, may have altered the patterns of maternal lineage frequency and distribution in existing populations. As a result, the genetic history of Europe has undergone significant transformation over time , resulting in genetic discontinuity between modern-day Europeans and their ancient maternal forbearers.
Received: August 17, 2006; Accepted October 20, 2006
Address for correspondence: Ellen Coffman, Ellenlevy66 (at) yahoo.com
The body of the study is of course too long for this page, and has been removed. For the complete text Click Here >>>
Conclusion: Why We Are Not Our Ancestors
The ancient DNA studies present a picture of genetic break or “discontinuity” between ancient and modern-day European maternal histories. This evidence indicates that modern-day mtDNA haplogroup frequencies and distributions should not be considered living fossils of Europe's Paleolithic past.
Currently, the genetic picture presented by the aDNA studies is based exclusively on mitochondrial DNA results. This form of DNA, unlike that of the Y chromosome, is generally preserved in a form that allows for testing of ancient remains. However, the Y chromosome genetic picture of Europe may also have undergone significant change similar to that impacting the ancient maternal lineages. The ancient DNA results provide a cautionary framework for geneticists in their reconstruction of the distribution and frequency of ancient European Y chromosome lineages. Modern-day Europeans cannot accurately be used as genetic proxies for their prehistoric counterparts.
These findings stand in stark contrast to the model presented by many DNA studies of an undisturbed genetic link between contemporary and Paleolithic European groups. Yet evidence of such genetic continuity is sparse, even among populations such as the Basque. More problematically, it contradicts the findings of the ancient DNA studies. These studies indicate that populations have indeed changed dramatically over time, with some ancient lineages suffering reductions and even extinctions from the European gene pool.
Extinction appears to be the fate suffered by the Etruscans maternal lineages. Many other ancient groups appear to have suffered a similar fate, the continuity of their genetic lineages extinguished for future generations. Only the archaeological record remains a testament to their existence. Certain genetic lineages, like mtDNA haplogroup H, came to dominate the genetic landscape over time. The contemporary European genetic picture is thus a reflection of these complex demographic and evolutionary processes, changing and adapting until it is no longer a mere reflection of its genetic past, but a new and constantly evolving population.
Please visit the "Additional Material Area" for many more photographs of each civilization, and related material <Click>
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