Ancient Man and His First Civilizations

The Histories of Herodotus

Translated by George Rawlinson (1858–60)

Canon of Canterbury and Camden, Professor of Ancient History at the University of Oxford

The Persian Wars


These Histories are presented as a reference. They should NOT be given too much weight. Herodotus was more of a storyteller than a Historian. It is probable that Herodotus NEVER visited these places, but simply Made up stories from things that he had heard. Much the same as was done By the author of Robinson Crusoe, (he never left England).

But most importantly:

The ancient Greek and Roman writers were Blacks.
What you are getting is Albino translations of their works designed to make them appear to be Albinos.
It is very difficult to carry a complicated lie forward through the years, so consequently the translations are often contradictory.

Reference Wiki:

Aethiopia (Classical Greek term) = Ethiopia = "Burnt face".

That is actually a lie created by Albinos for some racist, simple-minded reason that normal minds cannot comprehend. Unfortunately - to the Albino trying to hide his true nature and true past, a lot of stupid, cruel, and murderous, things make sense. This particular lie is deconstructed here: Click here: >>>

The Greek historian Herodotus specifically uses it to describe all of Sub-Saharan Africa.

The Latin name Libya referred to the region west of the Nile Valley, generally corresponding to modern Northwest Africa.

Examples of the lie induced errors:

[2.104] There can be no doubt that the Colchians are an Egyptian race. My own conjectures were founded, first, on the fact that they are black-skinned and have woolly hair, which certainly amounts to but little, since several other nations are so too. But further and more especially, on the circumstance that the Colchians, the Egyptians, and the Ethiopians (here he is talking Nubians), are the only nations who have practised circumcision from the earliest times.


This translation of Herodotus was done in 1858-1860 by George Rawlinson (in collaboration with Sir Henry Rawlinson and Sir John Gardiner Wilkinson). Since 1860 it has been the standard translation of Herodotus. However as of late, the Colchian quote at [2:104] "they are black-skinned" seems to have made the Albino people very nervous. As such a definitive statement makes it very difficult to assert that they were simply "Dark Skinned" White people. So as of late, the Rawlinson translation has, for the most part, been removed from the internet, and replaced with "NEW" translations which now say: "they are Dark-skinned".

Among those going to the "Dark" translation are: Tuffs University, Sacred-texts Archive, The Project Gutenberg, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has chosen not to include that portion of book-2. Needles to say, all materials from these institutions, and others who practice false racial ambiguity and outright falsification, must be scrutinized to the greatest extent.

As of this date (2013) these sites still offer the Rawlinson translation: The University of Adelaide, The Iran Chamber Society: This will likely change when they get the memo.


[7.70] The eastern Ethiopians - for two nations of this name served in the army - were marshalled with the Indians. They differed in nothing from the other Ethiopians, save in their language, and the character of their hair. For the eastern Ethiopians have straight hair, while they of Libya (here he is talking about ALL of Africa) are more woolly-haired than any other people in the world.


(Aren't Dravidian INDIANS "Straight-haired" Blacks?).



[7.9] Whereupon Mardonius took the word, and said: "Of a truth, my lord, thou dost surpass, not only all living Persians, but likewise those yet unborn. Most true and right is each word that thou hast now uttered; but best of all thy resolve not to let the Ionians who live in Europe - a worthless crew - mock us any more. It were indeed a monstrous thing if, after conquering and enslaving the Sacae, the Indians, the Ethiopians, the Assyrians, and many other mighty nations.

(Above he is talking about neither Nubia or southern Africa, since the Persians conquered neither), that leaves only Libya, which the Persians did conquer.

Do you really think that Herodotus would confuse people and parts of the world like that?





At the time of Herodotus, neither the Black "Straight-haired" Indians, nor the Brown-skinned Hindu were the masters of India.

The Maurya Empire (circa 322 B.C.)

It was the world's largest empire in its time. At its greatest extent, the empire stretched to the north along the natural boundaries of the Himalayas, and to the east stretching into what is now Assam. To the west, it reached beyond modern Pakistan, annexing Balochistan and much of what is now Afghanistan, including the modern Herat and Kandahar provinces. The Empire was expanded into India's central and southern regions by the emperors Chandragupta and Bindusara, but it excluded a small portion of unexplored tribal and forested regions near Kalinga (modern Orissa).

These "Nappy-haired" Blacks were!




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The Histories of Herodotus

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Book I (Clio)

The rapes of Io, Europa, and Medea, which motivated Paris to abduct Helen. The subsequent Trojan War is marked as a precursor to later conflicts between peoples of Asia and Europe. (1.1–5)[3]
Colchis, Colchians and Medea. (1.2.2–1.2.3)
The rulers of Lydia (on the west coast of modern Turkey): Candaules, Gyges, Sadyattes, Alyattes, Croesus (1.6–7)
How Gyges took the kingdom from Candaules (1.8–13)
The singer Arion's ride on the dolphin (1.23–24)
Solon's answer to Croesus's question that Tellus was the happiest person in the world (1.29–33)
Croesus's efforts to protect his son Atys, his son's accidental death by Adrastus (1.34–44)
Croesus's test of the oracles (1.46–54)
The answer from the Oracle of Delphi concerning whether Croesus should attack the Persians (famous for its ambiguity): If you attack you will destroy a great empire. (1.55–56)
Peisistratos' rises and falls from power as tyrant of Athens (1.59–64)
The rise of Sparta (1.65–68)
Edwin Long's 1875 interpretation of The Babylonian Marriage Market as described by Herodotus in Book 1 of the Histories
The Battle of Halys; Thales predicts the solar eclipse of May 28, 585 B.C. (1.74)
Croesus's defeat by Cyrus II of Persia, and how he later became Cyrus's advisor (1.70–92)
The rulers of the Medes: Deioces, Phraortes, Cyaxares, Astyages, Cyrus II of Persia (1.95–144)
The rise of Deioces over the Medes
Astyages's attempt to destroy Cyrus, and Cyrus's rise to power
Harpagus tricked into eating his son, his revenge against Astyages by assisting Cyrus
The culture of the Persians
The history and geography of the Ionians, and the attacks on it by Harpagus
Pactyes' convinces the Lydians to revolt. Rebellion fails and he seeks refuge from Mazares in Cyme (Aeolis)
The culture of Assyria, especially the design and improvement of the city of Babylon and the ways of its people
Cyrus's attack on Babylon, including his revenge on the river Gyndes and his famous method for entering the city
Cyrus's ill-fated attack on the Massagetæ, leading to his death


Book II (Euterpe)

The proof of the antiquity of the Phrygians by the use of children unexposed to language
The Giza Pyramids
The geography of Egypt
Speculations on the Nile river
The religious practices of Egypt, especially as they differ from the Greeks
The animals of Egypt: cats, dogs, crocodiles, hippopotamuses, otters, phoenixes, sacred serpents, winged snakes, ibises
The culture of Egypt: medicine, funeral rites, food, boats
The kings of Egypt: Menes, Nitocris, Mœris, Sesostris, Pheron, Proteus
Helen and Paris's stay in Egypt, just before the Trojan War (2.112–120) [4]
More kings of Egypt: Rhampsinit (and the story of the clever thief), Cheops (and the building of the Great Pyramid of Giza), Chephren, Mycerinus, Asychis, Anysis, Sethôs
The line of priests
The Labyrinth
More kings of Egypt: the twelve, Psammetichus (and his rise to power), Necôs, Psammis, Apries, Amasis II (and his rise to power)


Book III (Thalia)

Cambyses II of Persia capturing pharaoh Psammetichus III (Persian seal, 6th century BC)

Cambyses II of Persia's (son of Cyrus II and king of Persia) attack on Egypt, and the defeat of the Egyptian king Psammetichus III.
Cambyses's abortive attack on Ethiopia
The madness of Cambyses
The good fortune of Polycrates king of Samos
Periander, the king of Corinth and Corcyra, and his obstinate son
The revolt of the two Magi in Persia and the death of Cambyses
The conspiracy of the seven to remove the Magi
The rise of Darius I of Persia.
The twenty satrapies
The culture of India and their method of collecting gold
The culture of Arabia and their method of collecting spices
The flooded valley with five gates
Orœtes's (governor of Sardis) scheme against Polycrates
The physician Democêdes
The rise of Syloson governor of Samos
The revolt of Babylon and its defeat by the scheme of Zopyrus


Book IV (Melpomene)

The history of the Scythians (from the land north of the Black Sea)
The miraculous poet Aristeas
The geography of Scythia
The inhabitants of regions beyond Scythia: Sauromatae, Budini, Thyssagetae, Argippaeans, Issedones, Arimaspi, Hyperboreans
A comparison of Libya (Africa), Asia, and Europe
The rivers of Scythia: the Ister, the Tyras, the Hypanis, the Borysthenes, the Panticapes, the Hypacyris, the Gerrhus, and the Tanais
The culture of the Scythians: religion, burial rites, xenophobia (the stories of Anacharsis and Scylas), population
Relief of Darius I, Persepolis
The beginning of Darius's attack on Scythia, including the pontoon bridge over the Bosphorus
The brutal worship of Zalmoxis by the Getae
The customs of the surrounding peoples: Tauri, Agathyrsi, Neuri, Androphagi (man-eaters), Melanchlaeni, Geloni, Budini, Sauromatae
The wooing of the Amazons by the Scyths, forming the Sauromatae
Darius's failed attack on Scythia and consequent retreat
The story of the Minyæ (descendants of the Argonauts) and the founding of Cyrene
The kings of Cyrene: Battus I, Arcesilaus I, Battus II, Arcesilaus II, Battus III (and the reforms of Demonax), Arcesilaus III (and his flight, restoration, and assassination), Battus IV, and Arcesilaus IV (his revolt and death)
The peoples of Libya from east to west
The revenge of Arcesilaus' mother Pheretima


Book V (Terpsichore)

The attack on the Thracians by Megabazus
The removal of the Paeonians to Asia
The slaughter of the Persian envoys by Alexander I of Macedon
The failed attack on the Naxians by Aristagoras, tyrant of Miletus
The revolt of Miletus against Persia
The background of Cleomenes I, king of Sparta, and his half brother Dorieus
The description of the Persian Royal Road from Sardis to Susa
The introduction of writing to Greece by the Phoenicians
The freeing of Athens by Sparta, and its subsequent attacks on Athens
The reorganizing of the Athenian tribes by Cleisthenes
The attack on Athens by the Thebans and Eginetans
The backgrounds of the tyrants of Corinth, Cypselus and his son Periander
Aristagoras's failed request for help from Sparta, and successful attempt with Athens
The burning of Sardis, and Darius's vow for revenge against the Athenians
Persia's attempts to quell the Ionian revolt


Book VI (Erato)

The fleeing of Histiaeus to Chios
The training of the Ionian fleet by Dionysius of Phocaea
The abandonment of the Ionian fleet by the Samians during battle
The defeat of the Ionian fleet by the Persians
The capture and death of Histiaeus by Harpagus
The invasion of Greece under Mardonius and enslavement of Macedon
The destruction of 300 ships in Mardonius's fleet near Athos

The order of Darius that the Greeks provide him earth and water, in which most consent, including Aegina
The Athenian request for assistance of Cleomenes of Sparta in dealing with the traitors
The history behind Sparta having two kings and their powers
The dethronement of Demaratus, the other king of Sparta, due to his supposed false lineage
The arrest of the traitors in Aegina by Cleomenes and the new king Leotychides
The suicide of Cleomenes in a fit of madness, possibly caused by his war with Argos, drinking unmixed wine, or his involvement in dethroning Demaratus
The battle between Aegina and Athens
The taking of Eretria by the Persians after the Eretrians sent away Athenian help
Pheidippides's encounter with the god Pan on a journey to Sparta to request aid
The assistance of the Plataeans, and the history behind their alliance with Athens
The Athenian win at the Battle of Marathon, led by Miltiades and other strategoi
The Spartans late arrival to assist Athens
The history of the Alcmaeonidae and how they came about their wealth and status
The death of Miltiades after a failed attack on Paros and the successful taking of Lemnos


Book VII (Polymnia)

The amassing of an army by Darius after learning about the defeat at Marathon
The quarrel between which son should succeed Darius in which Xerxes I of Persia is chosen
The death of Darius in 486 BC
The defeat of the Egyptian rebels by Xerxes
The advice given to Xerxes on invading Greece: Mardonius for invasion, Artabanus against (9-10)
Leonidas at Thermopylae, by Jacques-Louis David (1814)
The dreams of Xerxes in which a phantom frightens him and Artabanus into choosing invasion
The preparations for war, including a canal and Xerxes' Pontoon Bridges across the Hellespont
The offer by Pythius to give Xerxes all his money, in which Xerxes rewards him
The request by Pythius to allow one son to stay at home, Xerxes's anger, and the march out between the butchered halves of Pythius's son
The destruction and rebuilding of the bridges built by the Egyptians and Phoenicians at Abydos
The siding with Persia of many Greek states, including Thessaly, Thebes, Melia, and Argos
The refusal of aid after negotiations by Gelo of Syracuse, and the refusal from Crete
The destruction of 400 Persian ships due to a storm
The small Greek force (appox. 6000) led by Leonidas I, sent to Thermopylae to delay the Persian army (~5,283,220 (Herodotus) )
The Battle of Thermopylae in which the Greeks hold the pass for 3 days
The secret pass divulged by Ephialtes of Trachis in which Hydarnes uses to lead forces around the mountains to encircle the Greeks
The retreat of all but the Spartans, Thespians, and Thebans (forced to stay by the Spartans).
The Greek defeat and order by Xerxes to remove Leonidas's head and attach his torso to a cross


Book VIII (Urania)

Greek fleet is led by Eurybiades, a Spartan
The destruction by storm of two hundred ships sent to block the Greeks from escaping
The retreat of the Greek fleet after word of a defeat at Thermopylae
The supernatural rescue of Delphi from a Persian attack
The evacuation of Athens assisted by the fleet
The reinforcement of the Greek fleet at Salamis Island, bringing the total ships to 378
The destruction of Athens by the Persian land force after difficulties with those who remained
The Battle of Salamis, the Greeks have the advantage due to better organization, and less loss due to ability to swim
The description of the Angarum, the Persian riding post
The rise in favor of Artemisia, the Persian woman commander, and her council to Xerxes in favor returning to Persia
The Serpent Column dedicated by the victorious Greeks in Delphi, later transferred to Constantinople
The vengeance of Hermotimus, Xerxes' chief eunuch, against Panionius
The attack on Andros by Themistocles, the Athenian fleet commander and most valiant Greek at Salamis
The escape of Xerxes and leaving behind of 300,000 picked troops under Mardonius in Thessaly
The ancestry of Alexander I of Macedon, including Perdiccas
The refusal of an attempt by Alexander to seek a Persian alliance with Athens



Book IX (Calliope)

The second taking of an evacuated Athens
The evacuation to Thebes by Mardonius after the sending of Lacedaemonian troops
The slaying of Masistius, leader of the Persian cavalry, by the Athenians
The warning from Alexander to the Greeks of an impending attack
The death of Mardonius by Aeimnestus
The Persian retreat to Thebes where they are afterwards slaughtered (Battle of Plataea)
The description and dividing of the spoils
The speedy escape of Artabazus into Asia.
The Persian defeat in Ionia by the Greek fleet (Battle of Mycale), and the Ionian revolt
The mutilation of the wife of Masistes ordered by Amestris, wife of Xerxes
The death of Masistes after his intent to rebel
The Athenian blockade of Sestos and the capture of Artayctes