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When last we left Sumer, Shulgi was king and the desert Amorites were threatening.


The Amorite Invasion

After Shulgi died, his son Shu-Sin (2038 B.C.), became king, he also had himself deified. More wars were fought with the Amorites. Shu-Sin lost Assyria and erected a huge wall between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, just north of Babilla, to help keep out the Amorites. The wall was 170 miles long, and breached the banks of both rivers. He also campaigned in the Zagros mountains and defeated a coalition of local tribes there. He had extensive trade relations with the Indus Valley and elsewhere. Later he had to build additional walls around the cities of Ur and Nippur, to protect against the Amorites.

It was later, during the reign of Ibbi-Sin, the fifth ruler of Ur III, that raiders from the Mardu tribe (Amorites), finally broke through the walls. This resulted in widespread panic, and a general breakdown in communications throughout the Empire. Even before that, Ibbi-Sin's situation was insecure and even pathetic at times, throughout much of his reign. With this Amorite attack, the realm began to disintegrate almost immediately. Much of the time Ibbi-Sin was left confined to his capital city of Ur.

The Elamite city of Eshnunna, broke away in 2028 B.C, and the rest of Elam the next year. The Ensi's of most of his cities deserted him, and fended for themselves against the Amorites, who were ravaging Sumer. Seeing this, one of Ibbi-Sin's generals, Ishbi-Erra, rebelled and was given rule over the city of Isin, in an attempt to placate him.





The Elamite Invasion

These calamities prompted Elam, which had earlier been invaded by Ibbi-Sin, to resume hostilities. Ur came under attack from both Elam, and the Mardu (Amorites). Ur was besieged, taken, and utterly destroyed by the invading Elamites and their allies among the Iranian tribes. (It is not known what part the Mardu in the northwest, played in the final battles). King Ibbi-Sin was led away captive, and no more was ever heard of him. Sumerian songs and hymns, record in moving fashion the unhappy end of Ur. (The sample below is taken from the mid-point of the hymn.)



The lament for Ur: translation

On that day, when such a storm had pounded, when in the presence of the queen her city had been destroyed, on that day, when such a storm had been created, when they had pronounced the utter destruction of my city, when they had pronounced the utter destruction of Urim, when they had directed that its people be killed, on that day I did not abandon my city, I did not forsake my land.

Truly I shed my tears before An. Truly I myself made supplication to Enlil. "Let not my city be destroyed," I implored them. "Let not Urim be destroyed," I implored them. "Let not its people perish," I implored them. But An did not change that word. Enlil did not soothe my heart with an "It is good -- so be it".

A second time, when the council had settled itself in the pre-eminent place, and the Anuna had seated themselves to ratify decisions, I prostrated (?) myself and stretched out my arms. Truly I shed my tears before An. Truly I myself made supplication to Enlil. "Let not my city be destroyed," I implored them. "Let not Urim be destroyed," I implored them. "Let not its people perish," I implored them. But An did not change that word. Enlil did not soothe my heart with an "It is good -- so be it".

They gave instructions that my city should be utterly destroyed. They gave instructions that Urim should be utterly destroyed. They decreed its destiny that its people should be killed. In return for the speech (?) which I had given them, they both bound me together with my city and also bound my Urim together with me. An is not one to change his command, and Enlil does not alter what he has uttered."

Sumer was now in a state of disarray, disunity, and under the Elamite yoke. This lasted until Ishbi-Erra (the rebellious general of Isin), had consolidated his power and then driven the Elamite garrison from Ur. After this victory, for almost a century, the city of Isin predominated within the mosaic of Sumerian states, that were slowly re-emerging from the Elamite destruction, and the collapse of Ur III. Overseas trade started to revive and normalcy began to return.






At about this same time, probably as a result of the disorder caused by the Elamite invasion, Naplanum (an Amorite), became king of the city of Larsa, and was a contemporary of Ishbi-Erra of Isin. Naplanum was able to establish a dynasty in Larsa, and was succeeded by a line of 13 Amorite kings. Many of whom exercised great authority in Sumer. (By now the Amorites had become somewhat sedentary).


As time goes on, ever more wars are fought. Then in the previously unimportant Amorite city of Babilla, (later called Babylon), in the northern part of Sumer, One "Hammurabi" became's king. When Hammurabi succeeded his father, "Sin-muballit" as king of Babylon in 1792 B.C, he was still young. But as was customary in Mesopotamian royal courts of the time, he probably already had been entrusted with some official duties in the administration of the city.

So when he became king, he was ready to hit the ground running. He spent the next 29 years building coalitions and conquering other cities and territories, thereby building Babylon into a powerful state. The next 20 years were a time of relative calm. But the last 14 years of his life were spent in almost constant warfare.

It should be understood that Amorite rule in Sumer, was not the result of invasion and conquest, but rather, the result of coalition building and conquest, as attested to by this excerpt of a letter found in Mari.

“There is no king who is powerful for himself: with Hammurabi, ‘the man of Babylon,' go 10 or 15 kings, so with Rim-Sin, ‘the man of Larsa'; with Ibalpiel, ‘the man of Eshunna,' go 20 kings.”

Samsuiluna, the son of Hammurabi, took control even before the death of his father, who had a long illness. But an outburst of revolts followed the death of Hammurapi, and this led to the disintegration of the Amorite Empire. Although he fought vigorously, Samsuiluna lost all but Babylonia proper, but Babylon still had some power.

It appears that whatever arrangements and coalitions Hammurabi had made which allowed for Amorite rule, also died with him. For the Sumerians, revolt was in order, not only because of their ancient tradition of independence, but also because of the heavy-handedness of Babylon's policy's and the economic drain on the people.

Soon after, Samsuiluna also had to fight an adventurer who called himself Rim-Sin II of Larsa - for five years. Most of this fighting took place on the Elam/Sumer border, finally Rim-Sin II was captured and executed. The Elamite city of Eshnunna had sided with him, and so it's ruler "Anni" was also captured and strangled in Babylon.

During this war, Samsuiluna had pulled down the walls of Ur, set fire to the temples and partially destroyed the city. He did the same to Uruk. It's assumed that these cities also had sided with Rim-Sin II. Once again Elam, upon seeing weakness, invaded and sacked the two of them, taking away a statue of Inanna from Uruk.

A few years later (1732 B.C.), One Iluma-Ilu - pretending to be a descendent of Damiq-Ilishu, the last King of Isin, took the throne of Isin and declared independence. He ultimately gained the freedom of Sumer south of Nippur, and founded the Dynasty of the “Sealand” (the southern region of Sumer). Also called Chaldea, (see; biblical Ur of the Chaldees).

At about this same time, The Assyrians rebelled and gained their independence.

In 1715 B.C. Samsuiluna crushed an invading Kassite army. After his death, his son Abieshu defeated another Kassite attack, but allowed the peaceful settling of Kassites in Babylonia as agricultural workers. He also dammed the Tigris in an unsuccessful attempt to capture Iluma-Ilu, who had fled to the swamps. After Samsuiluna's death, four more Amorite kings ruled.

The last of them, Samsuditana (1625-1595 B.C.) was overthrown when the Hatti from Anatolia, under their king "Mursilis I" sacked Babylon.




Many ancient, and modern Blacks, have hair that naturally curls very tightly. Persians almost always depicted themselves with that type beardstyle. Thus it is referred to here as the Persian beardstyle.






(A note here: We acknowledge that translation of the ancient languages is a tricky business. But as anyone who has read the preamble to Hammurabi's code can attest: The words in the preamble to his code obviously don't jibe with his picture. (i.e. passages where Hammurabi describes himself as "White").

The picture is accurate, so that obviously means that the translation is not. This is not unusual, translations are often found to be inaccurate. Then again, there is the possibility that the errors in Hammurabis code are purposeful. Which would be very sad indeed, and only point to how personal feelings of {"an unseemly nature" - for want of better terminology}, by some, can muck-up so much. It also makes for really bad science.


Update: Sadly, but as one would expect, Hammurabi's code as Translated by L. W. King, and which is the translation universally cited by Whites - Is A Racist Lie. Click Here for an explanation and the correct translation. CLICK >>>


On a different note: There is no consensus as to the meaning of the name Hammurabi. Here our interest is in divining the meaning of the suffix Rabi or Rabbi. In late Hebrew times, the prefix Rabi/Rabbi was afforded Hebrew Scribes, meaning Great or Master (Scribe or Teacher). In modern times, a Rabbi is a Teacher. So logically we will accept the following definition.

Hammurabi = the Amorite god (H) ammu (is) rabi (great).

[A Biblical reference here]: It would be at about this time, after the fall of the Amorite dynasty of Hammurabi, that (Terah or Thare) - Abraham’s father - and his family, would leave {Ur of the Chaldees}, and journey to Harran in Aram. The Amorites who had settled in Sumer, may have now found themselves unwelcome, after the fall of the Amorite kings. This sets in motion the reverse migration that will take them to Aram, Canaan, Egypt, and then back to Canaan, culminating in the creation of the Hebrew state.


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