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Many people cannot get their minds around the idea that our genetically challenged Albinos, people that we (Blacks) created: could have gone renegade on us after spending millennia in Central Asia. There they foolishly inbred among themselves, thereby creating a New Albino Race, rather than mating with Blacks, which would have produced just more mulattoes. And then they not only Genocided us: their creators, after they entered Europe. But they repeated the process (to varying degrees of success) in the Americas, Australia, East Asia, Oceania, and even Africa: (lucky for us, we still outnumber them 5 to 1 world wide). But Albinos are a greedy and Murderous bunch, how long will those numbers hold? Especially since some families produce more Albino offspring than "Normal" offspring.
To cover-up their defective nature and monstrous deeds, the Albinos created an elaborate fake history of themselves and their creators - us Black people. But in their fake histories, it is "They" who are original Man, and the creators of Civilizations and Religions. And we Blacks are lesser evolved humanoids, best suited for servitude and Slavery. And they support it with huge numbers of fake artifacts and texts - an industry really. The exhibits and logical exercises that follow, are intended as an aid to those confused by fake Albino created histories.
And as a reality exercise; find an Albino: or White man if you're unconvinced - not a mulatto: take off his hat and shirt, leaving him wearing only a Kilt (like the ancient Egyptians). Then send him out to work the fields anywhere in the world south of Monaco France - see how long he lasts before the Sun kills him. (All original civilizations were below this latitude). Melanin has many functions, it is essential for full function Homo Sapien-Sapiens (Modern Man). Some Albinos try to ignore this truth, their skin Cancer numbers is the result.
From the late 1960s, Herbert S. Klein and other scholars began to collect archival data on slave-trading voyages from unpublished sources and to code them into a machine-readable format. In the 1970s and 1980s, scholars created a number of slave ship datasets, several of which the current authors chose to recode from the primary sources rather than integrate the datasets of those scholars into the present set. By the late 1980s, there were records of approximately 11,000 individual trans-Atlantic voyages in sixteen separate datasets, not all of which were trans-Atlantic, nor, as it turned out, slave voyages.
The idea of creating a single multisource dataset of trans-Atlantic slave voyages emerged from a chance meeting of David Eltis and Stephen Behrendt in the British Public Record Office in 1990 while they were working independently on the early and late British slave trades. At about the same time, David Richardson was taking over detailed multisource work on the large mid-eighteenth-century Liverpool shipping business begun years earlier by Maurice Schofield. All this work, together with the Bristol volumes that Richardson had already published, made it seem feasible to integrate the records for the very large British slave trade for the first time, and beyond that, given the available Dutch, French, and Portuguese data, to collect a single dataset for the trade as a whole. Meetings in January, 1991 at the American Historical Association and, in 1992, at the W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for Afro-American Research at Harvard University, headed by Professor Henry L. Gates, Jr resulted in grant proposals to major funding agencies. In July 1993 the project received funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities with supplementary support coming from the Mellon Foundation.
By the time the project began, Johannes Postma’s Dutch data had become available (subsequently revised in 2003), as had Stephen Behrendt’s compilation of the extensive British trade after 1779, and also the large and complex Richardson, Beedham, and Schofield pre-1787 Liverpool Plantation Register data set, all in machine-readable format.
Voyages is the product of a further great surge of information on the slave trade that has happened since 1999. Latin-American slaving expeditions were seriously under-represented on the CD-ROM, and, as a consequence, between 2001 and 2005 a major research initiative was undertaken in Portuguese and Spanish language archives around the Atlantic basins to address this deficiency. Three years of funding for this work (from 2002 to 2005) came from the Arts and Humanities Research Board of the United Kingdom and was administered through the University of Hull with David Richardson and David Eltis as the principal investigators. Manolo Florentino anchored the work in Rio de Janeiro, Roquinaldo Ferreira in Luanda, and Jelmer Vos in Lisbon, and other European archives. The major documentary collections explored in this period were in archives in Luanda, Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, Lisbon, Havana, Madrid, Sevilla, Amsterdam, Middelburg, Copenhagen, and London as well as the extensive eighteenth century newspaper holdings of the Bodleian and British Libraries.
The construction of the present open access web site, Voyages was made possible by yet a third major award in 2006, this one launched from Emory University. Once more the National Endowment for the Humanities was the source, but supplementary funding came from the W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for Afro-American Research at Harvard. While the research work continued during the two year period of these grants, the thrust of the effort shifted to presentation. The project team developed sophisticated search interfaces for three different kinds of data, as well as estimates of the size and direction of the trade. The web site would provide a range of ancillary material for educators including lesson plans and maps. Perhaps most important, the new site would provide an opportunity for researchers everywhere to continue to contribute their discoveries and correct errors in the data that they might find. After a peer-review process any new data or corrections will be added to the core database at three year intervals. It is difficult to think of any international project of preserving and reconstructing history which has depended more on collaboration than Voyages has. It is even harder to think of one that provides a better basis for such collaboration to continue into the future.
Russia = 144,031,000
| Serbia = 7,103,000
Denmark = 5,673,000
Finland = 5,475,000
Slovakia = 5,426,000
Norway = 5,194,000
Ireland = 4,630,000
Croatia = 4,230,000
Bosnia and Herzegovina = 3,750,000
Georgia = 3,707,000
Moldova = 3,564,000
Armenia = 3,010,000
Lithuania = 2,906,000
Albania = 2,887,000
Macedonia = 2,071,000
Slovenia = 2,065,000
Latvia = 1,979,000
Kosovo = 1,867,000
Estonia = 1,315,000
On the matter of credibility: On first reading, readers of these pages generally feel amazement, the concept of Blacks being the original settlers, and builders of the first civilizations everywhere, including Europe, is particularly unsettling to them. Both Black and White, because they were taught that there were no Blacks in Europe until the Romans brought them. Then some Blacks correctly say: Uh huh, I knew the Whites were lying, and then go on to enjoy their edification. But Whites remain incredulous, they say: this is simply Blacks with no accomplishments, trying to steal White accomplishment and history! They say, if this was true, my Teachers and Professors would have taught it to me. So either this is lies, or the information is so new that my Teachers and Professors don't know about it yet!
Well No, though it may be comforting to believe that your Teachers and Professors are of sufficient character that they would not lie to you, the facts do not support that conclusion. The fact is that European scientists had evidence, and knew from earlier that the 19th century, of the Black mans central role in settling and establishing civilization in Europe and everywhere else. The exhibits below attest to the fact that this knowledge was known over a hundred years ago. So either your Teachers and Professors are indeed liars, or they were very poorly educated.
PREHISTORIC MAN AND HIS STORY.
By Professor G. F. SCOTT ELLIOT, M.A., B.Sc., F.L.S., F.R.G.S.
With Seventy Illustrations and Diagrams. Demy 8vo. 7/6 net.
THE NEGROID OF GRIMALDI
The Aurignacians found the Moustierian or Neander-thaler in France, and during all the changes sketched above, the former seem to have held their own in that country. After the Wurm Ice Age the Aurignacians modified their weapons and mode of life, and, after the theory which we have adopted, became the men of La Madeleine.
These Aurignacians and their Magdalenian descendants pervaded all Central and Southern Europe. Their remains have also been discovered in Valetta (Malta), in Phoenicia (Nahr Antelias), and elsewhere, as we shall try to show later. But during this long period of time two other races also succeeded in entering France and Italy. These were a “ negroid,” perhaps pygmy, folk and the men of Solutrean.
We have seen that the Aurignacian was originally an African, and if he traversed North Africa on his way from Egypt and Mesopotamia, it would have been a very remarkable fact if he had not come in contact with the African pygmy or his ancestors, for the Bushman, Wam-battu, and the other pygmies are the oldest African race known to us.
The “ negroids ” discovered by Dr. Verneau in the Grotte du Grimaldi, though differing greatly from modern Bushmen, show that the Aurignacians were acquainted with a negroid stock, which may perhaps be assumed to be an ancestor of, or allied to, the pygmy. It is difficult to say exactly what was the relation between the Aurignacian and this “ negroid ” race.
Moreover, since the discovery of this burial, characteristic skulls of the same negroid affinity have been found in Spain, in Brittany (of Neolithic date), at Sierra (not earlier than the thirteenth century), in Sardinia, at Ostorf, and perhaps in Caithness.
Eureka! The Albinos have finally admitted where they come from!
As you ponder what this admission means, you might also consider what nonsense like this means:
If you Google "Where do White people come From" the second result that you will get is this Livescience article; (the first result is Stormfront - go ahead and read it for a laugh).
Why Did People Become White?
QUOTE: Vitamin D plays an important role in bone growth and the body's natural protection against certain diseases, and the inability to absorb enough in areas of less-powerful sunlight would have decreased life expectancies in our African ancestors. The further north they trekked, the more vitamin D they needed and the lighter they got over the generations, due to natural selection.
Also: While people of all skin types have the ability to produce the same amount of vitamin D in their systems, “highly pigmented (Black) people will need to stay in the sun around 6 times longer than light people in order to synthesize the same amount of vitamin D,” Juzeniene said, and a lack of the vitamin — something occurring among many American children right now, partly because they don't get out much — can make humans more susceptible to everything from heart disease to internal cancers.
That is of course "Pure" lie:
In the last century, cases of Rickets (often caused by lack of Vitamin D) was epidemic in Europe and North America. So much so, that they had to start adding Vitamin D in the manufacture of their Milk, Cereals, Cheeses, and such. This was NOT done for Blacks - who don't need it, it was done for Albino people, who desperately needed it.
THE REASON FOR SUCH RIDICULOUS STATEMENTS AND LIES IS THIS:
If Africans went into Europe circa 45,000 B.C. and STAYED Black.
Then modern Europeans MUST have ALWAYS been WHITE!
See: the section "Indus Valley-2" and other pages for the history of Europeans.
HOWEVER! Just as one group of Albino people had decided to admit that they came from Central Asia, and had ALWAYS been White, and thus derived from Dravidian Albinos. Other groups were pressing ahead with new lies to buttress European claims of being Black Africans who turned White because of Vitamin D deficiency. But these new claims have a twist, one would suppose to keep up with the times.
The "Supposed" New research is reported by YahooNews.com from LiveScience. Link to the on-line Newsstory
And the Daily Mail U.K. online. Link to the on-line Newsstory
Nature - International weekly Journal of science (no comment) also carried the story. Link to on-line Newsstory
The LiveScience Headline says: 7,000-Year-Old Human Bones Suggest New Date for Light-Skin Gene
And the Daily Mail U.K. Headline says: Light skin in Europeans stems from ONE 10,000-year-old ancestor who lived between India and the Middle East, claims study
The reason for these nonsensical proclamations is THIS, as summed up by LiveScience:
This drawing depicting a "Dark White Man" is of course the typical Albino falsification of history and science. The fact is that YOU CAN NOT do a Forensic Facial Reconstruction by "DRAWING" it! Making a facial reconstruction can "ONLY" be done by a doctor of physical and forensic anthropology with extensive training in anatomy (both medical and artistic). These facial reproductions draw on the science behind the morphology (shape) of the face as well as a knowledge of materials. Reconstructions start with a SKULL (or mold) and includes laboriously using "shaped" clay to fill-in for Muscles and tissue (including skin) on the skull until it is complete. Only after this process is complete, can you see what the individual might have looked like.
. Hunter-gatherers, some of them blue-eyed, who came from Africa more than 40,000 years ago
They would have looked like THIS:
. Middle Eastern farmers who migrated west much more recently
They would have looked like THIS:
. A mysterious population whose range may have spanned northern Europe and Siberia
We have no idea who that could be, unless they are talking about "Modern" Europeans AFTER they had migrated from Central Asia.
Researchers plan to analyze more of the 20,000 human remains stored at the Museum of London. According to Caroline McDonald, who is a senior curator at the museum, London was a cosmopolitan city from the moment it was created following the Roman invasion 2,000 years ago. Working with scientists at Durham University and an ancient DNA lab at McMaster University in Canada, museum researchers were able to reconstruct the DNA of four individuals so far.
The most complete skeleton studied was that of a 14-year-old girl, who the museum curators have named "The Lant Street teenager". Analysis of her DNA and chemicals in her teeth show that she grew up in North Africa. Her mitochondrial DNA lineage (passed down on the maternal line only) is common in southern and Eastern Europe. The teenager had blue eyes and yet there were things about her skeleton that suggested she had Sub-Saharan African ancestry.
The Mansell Street man
The analysis showed that Mansell Street man was over 45 years old with very dark brown hair and brown eyes. His mitochondrial DNA line was from North Africa and his remains show African traits as well. However, the chemical make-up of his teeth shows he grew up in London. His skeleton indicates that he had a form of bone disease that today is associated with diabetes caused by a protein-rich diet. That has come as a huge surprise to researchers because in modern populations this is a disease that mostly afflicts white males from the West. So the discovery will be of great interest to medical researchers.
His skull was found in a pit along with the heads of 38 other men aged between 18 and 45 - all of whom had met a violent end. This particular individual was 36-45 when he died. He had suffered serious injuries to his skull that had healed, so he had led a violent life up to his death. His mother's ancestral line is common in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. The Gladiator was not born in London, but he met a tragic end in the city. His head was removed from his body and probably left exposed in these pits for passers-by to see.
The Harper Road woman
"The Harper Road" woman was a first-generation Londoner. She had brown hair and brown eyes and died a handful of years after the city had been settled - shortly after Britain had been invaded by the Roman Empire in AD 43. She is buried with Roman pottery and belongings. When researchers checked the chemicals in her teeth, they confirmed she had been born in Britain. Ms McDonald was intrigued by the fact that a native Briton adopted a Roman lifestyle within a few years of the conquest. An added twist to the Harper Road woman's tale is that her chromosomes show that she was genetically a male - even though physically she was a woman - another feature that will intrigue modern-day researchers.
The ancestors of the people who built Stonehenge travelled west across the Mediterranean before reaching Britain, a study has shown. Researchers compared DNA extracted from Neolithic human remains found across Britain with that of people alive at the same time in Europe. The Neolithic inhabitants were descended from populations originating in Anatolia (modern Turkey) that moved to Iberia before heading north. They reached Britain in about 4,000BC.
Details have been published in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution. The migration to Britain was just one part of a general, massive expansion of people out of Anatolia in 6,000BC that introduced farming to Europe. Before that, Europe was populated by small, travelling groups which hunted animals and gathered wild plants and shellfish. One group of early farmers followed the river Danube up into Central Europe, but another group travelled west across the Mediterranean.
DNA reveals that Neolithic Britons were largely descended from groups who took the Mediterranean route, either hugging the coast or hopping from island-to-island on boats. Some British groups had a minor amount of ancestry from groups that followed the Danube route.
When the researchers analysed the DNA of early British farmers, they found they most closely resembled Neolithic people from Iberia (modern Spain and Portugal). These Iberian farmers were descended from people who had journeyed across the Mediterranean. From Iberia, or somewhere close, the Mediterranean farmers travelled north through France. They might have entered Britain from the west, through Wales or south-west England. Indeed, radiocarbon dates suggest that Neolithic people arrived marginally earlier in the west, but this remains a topic for future work.
In addition to farming, the Neolithic migrants to Britain appear to have introduced the tradition of building monuments using large stones known as megaliths. Stonehenge in Wiltshire was part of this tradition. Although Britain was inhabited by groups of "western hunter-gatherers" when the farmers arrived in about 4,000BC, DNA shows that the two groups did not mix very much at all.
The British hunter-gatherers were almost completely replaced by the Neolithic farmers, apart from one group in western Scotland, where the Neolithic inhabitants had elevated local ancestry. This could have come down to the farmer groups simply having greater numbers. "We don't find any detectable evidence at all for the local British western hunter-gatherer ancestry in the Neolithic farmers after they arrive," said co-author Dr Tom Booth, a specialist in ancient DNA from the Natural History Museum in London.
"That doesn't mean they don't mix at all, it just means that maybe their population sizes were too small to have left any kind of genetic legacy." Co-author Professor Mark Thomas, from UCL, said he also favoured "a numbers game explanation".
Professor Thomas said the Neolithic farmers had probably had to adapt their practices to different climatic conditions as they moved across Europe. But by the time they reached Britain they were already "tooled up" and well-prepared for growing crops in a north-west European climate. The study also analysed DNA from these British hunter-gatherers. One of the skeletons analysed was that of Cheddar Man, whose skeletal remains have been dated to 7,100BC.
He was the subject of a reconstruction unveiled at the Natural History Museum last year. DNA suggests that, like most other European hunter-gatherers of the time, he had dark skin combined with blue eyes. Genetic analysis shows that the Neolithic farmers, by contrast, were paler-skinned with brown eyes and black or dark-brown hair.
^ PURE ALBINO LIES ^
Reference this scientific study instead of Albino lies.
Please note: Byzantium/Anatolia/The Eastern Roman Empire/Asia Minor: are all the SAME place = Anatolia.
Which the Albino Turks from Asia took from the Black Eastern Roman Empire in 1453 A.D.
Towards the end of the Neolithic, in about 2,450BC, the descendants of the first farmers were themselves almost entirely replaced when a new population - called the Bell Beaker people - migrated from mainland Europe. So Britain saw two extreme genetic shifts in the space of a few thousand years. Prof Thomas said that this later event happened after the Neolithic population had been in decline for some time, both in Britain and across Europe. He cautioned against simplistic explanations invoking conflict, and said the shifts ultimately came down to "economic" factors, about which lifestyles were best suited to exploit the landscape.
Dr Booth explained: "It's difficult to see whether the two [genetic shifts] could have anything in common - they're two very different kinds of change. There's speculation that they're to some extent population collapses. But the reasons suggested for those two collapses are different, so it could just be coincidence."
David MacRitchie (1851-1925) was a Scottish folklorist and antiquarian
David MacRitchie was a prominent proponent of the euhemeristic origin of fairies, a theory that considers fairies in British folklore to have been rooted in a historical pygmy, dwarf or short sized aboriginal race, that lived during Neolithic Britain or even earlier.
In his Book “Ancient and Modern Britons” MacRitchie asserts that the Gypsies were not of foreign origin, but were in fact the more conservative element of the native British population who had retained their nomadic way of life while the majority adopted a settled lifestyle. He further claimed that the ancient Britons were a dark-skinned people.
Publications by MacRitchie include:
Egyptians, Sumerians, Mohenjo-daroans, Harappans, and Cretans, Elamites, and Nubians, were literate 3,000 years, 4,000 years, who knows how many thousands of years, before the world ever heard of Greeks or Romans. And there is ample evidence of their literacy.
Yet there is not one single entry: describing any of the people of their times, whether it be friends, foes, or invaders: or even more incredulously, there is not one single entry describing invading Whites in any of their literature.
Contrast that with Greek and Roman writings, in which these NEWLY literate people, after suffering through the "Dark ages" caused by the Albinos invasion, describe EVERYTHING and EVERYONE - except themselves!
These discrepancies are of course, not accidental, nor for lack of material. Hopefully, the White man has simply withheld this material, and not destroyed it.
On a related matter:
We the lied-to and oppressed, often comfort ourselves by believing that things are getting better, and perhaps in some ways that is so. But in regards to the Albinos trying to steal Black history, well, in that regard things are definitely getting worst!
It comes as a shock to some, that the current, and very false assertion by the Albinos that they are native to Europe, is NEW! Surprisingly, Albino scholars of only a hundred years ago, freely admitted that Albinos MOVED into Europe, and were NOT native to those lands. While they were in error on other things, some even correctly identified the Albino homeland as Central Asia.
Please note this example:
The North American Review
The North American Review (NAR) was the first literary magazine in the United States. Founded in Boston in 1815 by journalist Nathan Hale and others, it was published continuously until 1940.
Please note this entry from:
The North American Review Volume 0139 Issue 334 (Sept 1884)
ANCIENT TYPES OF MAN
MAN'S PLACE IN NATURE AND OTHER ANTHROPOLOGICAL ESSAYS
In order to neglect no point respecting the form of this fossil skull, we may observe that, from the first, the elongated and narrow form of the forehead attracted our attention. In fact, the slight elevation of the frontal, its narrowness, and the form of the orbit, approximate it more nearly to the cranium of an Ethiopian than to that of a European.
CIVILIZATION OR BARBARISM: AN AUTHENTIC ANTHROPOLOGY
The Grimaldi Negroids have left their numerous traces all over Europe and Asia, from the Iberian Peninsula to Lake Baykal in Siberia, passing through France, Austria, the Crimea, and the Basin of Don, etc. In these last two regions, the late Soviet Professor Mikhail Gerasimov, a scholar of rare objectivity, identified the Negroid type from skulls found in the Middle Mousterian period.
Legitimate Black researchers, (as opposed to those who do it to gain favor with the Albinos and thus make money), must out of necessity, try to reconstruct history by bits and pieces. The Albinos have after all, had over 200 years to create their false paintings, statues, and false translations of historical documents.
The task of parsing their lies from the truth is indeed daunting. But every now and then, we uncover an artifact so revealing, that it answers many of our questions, such as; What race were the Holy Roman Emperors? What race were the Inca? Who was the last Black Spanish King? When did the Spanish start depicting Jesus as an Albino instead of a Black man? All of these question have been answered by a painting of the Inca king list, painted circa 1800 in Peru.
All related pages have been updated with this new information: i.e. South America-2, and the history of the Holy Roman Empire, in the Charles V section. It is hoped that one day, we may uncover similar authentic and truthful paintings of British kings.
Click here for Black Germany >>>
Britain has been intermittently inhabited by members of the Homo genus for hundreds of thousands of years and by Homo sapiens for tens of thousands of years. DNA analysis has shown that modern humans arrived in Britain at least 25,000 years ago, before the commencement of the last Ice Age. This evidence also shows that, as the next (and last) Ice Age encroached from the north, the first humans living in Britain then retreated to Southern Europe when much of the continental land mass became covered with ice or frozen as tundra.
As shown by archaeology, Homo sapiens had reoccupied Britain by approximately 12,000 BC, as the climate became warmer and more hospitable. By around 4000 B.C, the island was populated by people with a Neolithic culture. The first significant written record of Britain and its inhabitants was made by the Greek navigator Pytheas, who explored the coastal region of Britain around 325 B.C. However, there may be some additional information on Britain in the "Ora Maritima," a text which is now lost but which is incorporated in the writing of the later author Avienus. Archeological evidence demonstrates that ancient Britons were involved in extensive maritime trade and cultural links with the rest of Europe from the Neolithic onwards, especially by exporting tin that was in abundant supply. Julius Caesar also wrote of Britain in about 50 B.C, subsequent to his attempted conquest of the island in 55/54 B.C. Located at the fringes of Europe, Britain received European technological and cultural achievements much later than Southern Europe and the Mediterranean region did during prehistory. The story of ancient Britain is traditionally seen as one of successive waves of invasion from the continent, with them came different cultures and technologies.
This period can be sub-divided into an earlier phase (2300 to 1200) and a later one (1200 – 700). Beaker pottery appears in England around 2475–2315 B.C. along with flat axes and burial practices of inhumation. With the revised Stonehenge chronology, this is after the Sarsen Circle and trilithons were erected at Stonehenge. Believed to be of Iberian origin, (modern day Spain and Portugal - see artifact below), Beaker techniques brought to Britain the skill of refining metal. At first the users made items from copper, but from around 2,150 B.C, smiths had discovered how to make bronze (which was much harder than copper) by mixing copper with a small amount of tin. With this discovery, the Bronze Age arrived in Britain. Over the next thousand years, bronze gradually replaced stone as the main material for tool and weapon making. The Beaker people were also skilled at making ornaments from gold, silver, copper, and examples of these have been found in graves of the wealthy Wessex culture of Central Southern Britain.
The Bell-Beaker culture ca. 2800 – 1900 B.C, is the term for a widely scattered cultural phenomenon of prehistoric western Europe starting in the late Neolithic or Chalcolithic running into the early Bronze Age. The term was coined by John Abercromby, based on their distinctive pottery drinking vessels.
Beaker culture is defined by the common use of a pottery style — a beaker with a distinctive inverted bell-shaped profile found across the western part of Europe during the late 3rd millennium B.C. The pottery is well-made, usually red or red-brown in colour, and ornamented with horizontal bands of incised, excised or impressed patterns. The early Bell Beakers have been described as "International" in style, as they are found in all areas of the Bell Beaker culture. These include cord-impressed types, such as the "All Over Corded" (or "All Over Ornamented"), and the "Maritime" type, decorated with bands filled with impressions made with a comb or cord. Later characteristic regional styles developed.
It has been suggested that the beakers were designed for the consumption of alcohol and that the introduction of the substance to Europe may have fueled the beakers' spread. Beer and mead content have been identified from certain examples. However, not all Beakers were drinking cups. Some were used as reduction pots to smelt copper ores, others have some organic residues associated with food, and still others were employed as funerary urns. Beakers may have been a special form of pottery with a ritual character.
Many theories of the origins of the Bell Beakers have been put forward and subsequently challenged. The Iberian peninsula has been argued as the most likely place of Beaker origin. The oldest AOO shards have so far been found in northern Portugal. Bell Beaker is often suggested as a candidate for an early Indo-European culture or, more specifically, an ancestral proto-Celtic or proto-Italic (Italo-Celtic) culture.
There is evidence of a relatively large scale disruption of cultural patterns which some scholars think may indicate an invasion (or at least a migration) into Southern Great Britain c. the 12th century B.C. This disruption was felt far beyond Britain, even beyond Europe, as most of the great Near Eastern empires collapsed (or experienced severe difficulties) and the Sea Peoples harried the entire Mediterranean basin around this time. Some scholars consider that the Celtic languages arrived in Britain at this time, but the more generally accepted view is that Celtic origins lie with the Hallstatt culture.
The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture, centered in Germany, from the 8th to 6th centuries B.C. (European Early Iron Age), developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century B.C. (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of Central Europe by the La Tène culture. By the 6th century B.C, the Halstatt culture extended for some 1000 km, from the Champagne-Ardenne in the west, through the Upper Rhine and the upper Danube, as far as the Vienna Basin and the Danubian Lowland in the east, from the Main, Bohemia and the Little Carpathians in the north, to the Swiss plateau, the Salzkammergut and to Lower Styria. It is named for its type site, Hallstatt, a lakeside village in the Austrian Salzkammergut southeast of Salzburg. The culture is commonly linked to Proto-Celtic and Celtic populations in its western zone and with pre-Illyrians in its eastern zone.
for National Geographic News
May 19, 2005
Scientists have confirmed that bones found in the Czech Republic represent the earliest human settlement in Europe. The collection of bones, which include samples from two males and two females, was excavated from the site of Mladec more than a century ago. Scientists have until now failed to date the fossils accurately. The new research, using radiocarbon dating, has shown the bones to be about 31,000 radiocarbon years old. (Radiocarbon years and calendar years don't always match. Radiocarbon dating is based on the decay rate of Carbon 14, a radioactive form of carbon present in the atmosphere that is absorbed by all living things. Atmospheric abundance of Carbon 14 has varied over time. This makes it difficult to assign calendar dates to the fossil remains of organisms from certain time periods, as in the case of the Mladec bones.) Modern humans began moving into Europe about 40,000 years ago. At the time, the Neandertals (also called Neanderthals) were still present in Europe. The two groups lived alongside each other until the Neandertals disappeared around 28,000 years ago.
The Mladec bones are not the oldest human remains found in Europe—just the oldest bones that indicate a human settlement, or community. Two human cranial fragments, found at the site of Pestera cu Oase in Romania, are believed to be older than the Mladec remains and date back 35,000 radiocarbon years. The Mladec remains are a complete assemblage of early modern human fossils. The site contains remains of at least half a dozen individuals, including children. The range allows for the study of population variability.
The first Europeans: Bust Created from fragments of a fossil.
By David Derbyshire
5th May 2009 - story at the Daily Mail U.K.
Quote: This clay sculpture portrays the face of the earliest known modern European - a man or woman who hunted deer and gathered fruit and herbs in ancient forests more than 35,000 years ago. It was created by Richard Neave; one of Britain's leading forensic scientists, using fossilized fragments of skull and jawbone found in a cave seven years ago.
His recreation offers a tantalizing glimpse into life before the dawn of civilization. It also shows the close links between the first European settlers and their immediate African ancestors. It was made for the BBC2 series The Incredible Human Journey. This will follow the evolution of humans from the cradle of Africa to the waves of migrations that saw Homo sapiens colonize the globe. (The program will be shown on BBC2 at 9.30pm on May 10).
The head is based on remains of one of the earliest known anatomically modern Europeans. The lower jawbone was discovered by potholers in Pestera cu Oase, the "cave with bones", located in the southwestern Carpathian Mountains of Romania in 2002. The rest of the fragments were found the following year. The bones were carbon-dated to between 34,000 and 36,000 years ago when Europe was occupied by two species of human. They were the Neanderthals, who had arrived from Africa tens of thousands of years earlier, and the more recent modern humans, also known as Cro-Magnons. Although the skull is similar to a modern human head, it has a larger cranium, is more robust and has larger molars. Fossil experts are also unsure if the skull was male or female.
|Because of their close proximity to the actual crossing place for Africans entering Europe (Gibraltar), the Grimaldi skeletons of Monaco, which were described as resembling the Khoisan, are more likely the oldest human skeletons in Europe.|
Celtic Myth & Legend
Chapter III - WHO WERE THE "ANCIENT BRITONS"?
Speculation has run somewhat wild over the question of the composition of the Early Britons. But out of the clash of rival theories there emerges one--and one only--which may be considered as scientifically established. We have certain proof of two distinct human stocks in the British Islands at the time of the Roman Conquest; and so great an authority as Professor Huxley has given his opinion that there is no evidence of any others. [Thomas Henry Huxley (1825 – 1895) 19:1 Huxley: On Some Fixed Points in British Ethnology. 1871].
The earliest of these two races would seem to have inhabited our islands from the most ancient times, and may, for our purpose, be described as aboriginal. It was the people that built the "long barrows"; and which is variously called by ethnologists the Iberian, Mediterranean, Berber, Basque, Silurian, or Euskarian race. In physique it was short, swarthy, dark-haired, dark-eyed, and long-skulled; its language belonged to the class called "Hamitic", the surviving types of which are found among the Gallas, Abyssinians, Berbers, and other North African tribes; and it seems to have come originally from some part either of Eastern, Northern, or Central Africa. Spreading thence, it was probably the first people to inhabit the Valley of the Nile, and it sent offshoots into Syria and Asia Minor. The earliest Hellenes found it in Greece under the name of "Pelasgoi"; the earliest Latins in Italy, as the "Etruscans"; and the Hebrews in Palestine, as the "Hittites". It spread northward through Europe as far as the Baltic, and westward, along the Atlas chain, to Spain, France, and our own islands. 1 In many countries it reached a comparatively high level of civilization, but in Britain its development must have been early checked. We can discern it as an agricultural rather than a pastoral people, still in the Stone Age, dwelling in totemistic tribes on hills whose summits it fortified elaborately, and whose slopes it cultivated on what is called the "terrace system", and having a primitive culture which ethnologists think to have much resembled that of the present hill-tribes of Southern India. 2 It held our islands till the coming of the Celts, who fought with the aborigines, dispossessed them of the more fertile parts, subjugated them, even amalgamated with them, but certainly never extirpated them. In the time of the Romans they were still practically independent in South Wales. In Ireland they were long unconquered, and are found as allies rather than serfs of the Gaels, ruling their own provinces, and preserving their own customs and religion. Nor, in spite of all the successive invasions of Great Britain and Ireland.
Megalith: The Black Builders of Stonehenge
By Aylmer von Fleischer (2010)
Quote: On the plains of Wiltshire in England lie the remains of ancient giant stones. The evidence is simply overwhelming that the earliest inhabitants of Britain and Ireland were Blacks. Mythological, archeological, linguistic and other sources have substantiated this remarkable fact. Candid authorities like the British Egyptologists Gerald Massey and Albert Churchward, the Scottish historian David Mac Ritchie, and the British antiquarian Godfrey Higgins, have done exhaustive research and brought many facts to our knowledge. Tacitus, Pliny, Claudian and other writers have described the Blacks they encountered in the British Isles as "Black as Ethiopians," "Cum Nigris Gentibus," "nimble-footed blackamoors," and so on. This book reveals much about the Black presence in the early British Isles, including the "mysterious" builders of Stonehenge.
The following are excerpts from the book “MYTHS OF CRETE & PRE-HELLENIC EUROPE By DONALD A. MACKENZIE” (1917). Like all White writers of history, he struggles to tell Black history, without actually mentioning Black people. As an example “Pre-Hellenic” actually means “Pre-Whites” as the Hellenes accepted into their body, the first of the White Central Asians to reach Western Europe - Herodotus call them Barbarians. But since many of his observations are accurate, we begin with these excerpts from his book.
Quote: Whence was the bronze obtained by the Cretans? Was it from Egypt or Anatolia? Both Crete and Troy were able soon after the dawn of their Bronze Ages to import silver, which during the Old Kingdom Period was rarer than gold in Egypt. The silver may have come from the same region as tin. One possible source of supplies of silver was Cilicia, where silver mines are still worked; the other was Spain, in which country evidence has been forthcoming of early commercial relations with Crete.
But although copper could be found in Crete, the tin, as has been indicated, had to be imported. "By the beginning of the Bronze Age", writes Dr. Mackenzie in this connection, "the valley of the Rhone must have played a dominant role of communication between the great world of the Mediterranean and the north; by that time it was probably already the high continental trade route towards the tin mines of Britain." Angelo Mosso also favours the hypothesis that Crete's early supplies came from England. "We know the road", he says, "followed by the caravans bringing English tin through France to the mouth of the Rhone at the end of the Neolithic period, while no trace of any trade in tin has so far been discovered in the East." Mosso's reference to the "East" applies to "the mountains of China where tin is found".
Although archæologists are less inclined nowadays than they were a generation ago to believe in the existence of Neolithic trade-routes which extended from the borders of China to Brittany, or to connect certain races with relics of similar character found in widely separated districts, there can be little doubt regarding the existence of commercial relations between different cultural areas. The introduction of metal appears to have done much to stimulate international trade. In the Early Bronze Age the influence of the Ægean, which may have "inspired every stage of culture" at Hissarlik, as Mr. Hogarth suggests, appears to have penetrated Thrace. Evidence has been forthcoming that two main trade-routes crossed Germany, one from the head of the Adriatic, and the other from the lower Danube valley. It has been suggested that some of the amber found in Crete came down these trade routes from the Baltic. France was similarly crossed by the Rhone valley trade-route, down which, in time, tin from Cornwall was carried. That the Cretans were the earliest seafarers to come into direct touch with these routes is suggested by various interesting links of evidence. The most remarkable are the Egyptian glass beads found in South Germany, and the Egyptian blue-glaze beads taken from ancient graves on Salisbury Plain, which will be dealt with in a later chapter, as they are connected with the Late Minoan Period.
Certain Continental archæologists incline to the belief that not only Crete but even Egypt was in direct touch with Western Europe at an extremely remote period. Summarizing their views, Angelo Mosso writes: "The vases found at Amerejo in Spain have the characteristic form of the Egyptian vases of the close of the Neolithic Age. The resemblance of the Egyptian idols with those of Crete and the Continent is an established fact; the burial sites are similar; the flat copper axes of Egypt cannot be distinguished from those of the Continent; the evolution of art in Southern France and in Spain went on during the Neolithic Age, and we know that navigation was general on the Mediterranean in the times preceding the introduction of copper-all these data give good reason to suppose that the pre-Dynastic Egyptians had relations with the west which enabled them to procure cassiterite, which when mixed with copper rendered it harder. . . . We hope", he adds, "that new discoveries may throw light on the relations of Egypt with England." End quote.
In 1955, archaeologist Dr. Sean O’Riordan of Trinity College, Dublin, made an interesting discovery during an excavation of the Mound of Hostages at Tara, site of ancient kingship of Ireland. Bronze Age skeletal remains were found of what has been argued to be a young prince, still wearing a rare necklace of faience beads, made from a paste of minerals and plant extracts that had been fired. The skeleton was carbon dated to around 1350 BC. In 1956, J. F. Stone and L. C. Thomas reported that the faience beads were Egyptian: “In fact, when they were compared with Egyptian faience beads, they were found to be not only of identical manufacture but also of matching design. The famous boy-king Tutankhamun was entombed around the same time as the Tara skeleton and the priceless golden collar around his mummy’s neck was inlayed with matching conical, blue-green faience beads”. An almost identical necklace was found in a Bronze Age burial mound at north Molton, Devon.
Lorraine Evans in her compelling book, Kingdom of the Ark, reveals archaeological connections between Egypt and Ireland. Evans argues that the connections between the two distant lands were plausible and there is archaeological evidence to support the theory. In 1937 in North Ferriby, Yorkshire, the remains of an ancient boat were discovered. While thought to be a Viking longship at first, continued excavation produced additional ships, wrecked in a storm. Further investigation showed that the boats were much older than Viking ships and were of a type found in the Mediterranean. It was concluded that these boats originated from 2000 years before the Viking age and were radiocarbon dated to around 1400 to 1350 BC. Evans then makes connections to argue that these boats could originate from Egypt, as the timeframe fits the dating of the faience beads. While investigating the origins of the people of Scotland in the Bower manuscript, the Scotichronicon, she discovers the story of Scota, the Egyptian princess and daughter of a pharaoh who fled from Egypt with her husband Gaythelos with a large following of people who arrive in a fleet of ships. They settled in Scotland for a while amongst the natives, until they were forced to leave and landed in Ireland, where they formed the Scotti, and their kings became the high kings of Ireland. In later centuries, they returned to Scotland, defeating the Picts, and giving Scotland its name.
Evans then posits the questions: Was the Tara necklace a gift from the Egyptians to a local chieftain after their arrival? Or was the Tara prince actually Egyptian himself? According to Bower’s manuscript, Scota’s descendants were the high kings of Ireland. In her quest to discover the true identity of ‘Scota,’ as it was not an Egyptian name, she finds within Bower’s manuscript that Scota’s father is actually named as being Achencres, a Greek version of an Egyptian name. In the work of Manetho, an Egyptian priest, Evans discovers the translation of the name—the pharaoh Achencres was none other than Akhenaten, who reigned in the correct timeframe of 1350 BC. Evans believes that Scota was Meritaten, eldest daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. The third eldest daughter, Ankhesenpaaten, married her half-brother, King Tutankhamun, son of Akhenaten and his secondary wife, Kiya. The controversial religious shift to the god Aten caused conflict with the Amun priesthood, who reasserted their authority after Akhenaten’s reign ended and he disappeared from history. This conflict and the rumored deaths by plague would have been sufficient motivation for the pharaoh’s eldest daughter to accept a foreign prince in marriage, rather than being Tut’s wife as would have been normal protocol, and to flee from the conflicted country.
The first Albinos arrived circa 1,200 B.C. They became part of the Black Greek and Roman cultures. Today's Albino Europeans have nothing to do with them except a common point of origin - Central Asia. Today's Albino Europeans were part of what is called the "Great Migration Period" - Albinos call it that. Actually, it was not a migration at all, these Central Asian Albino tribes, called collectively the Germanics and the Slav's, were chased out of Asia by the Huns of Attila. Later, the last Albino tribe in Asia - the Turks; were chased out of Asia by the Mongols of Genghis Khan.
The Byzantine historian Zosimus (491-518), In his book "Historia Nova" gives this account as to why the White tribes (Germanics and Slavs) started westward into Europe.
Quote: While these affairs were so conducted, a barbarous nation, which till then had remained unknown, suddenly made its appearance, attacking the Scythians beyond the Ister. These were the Huns. It is doubtful whether they were Scythians, who lived under regal government, or the people whom Herodotus states to reside near the Ister, and describes as a weak people with flat noses, or whether they came into Europe from Asia. For I have met with, a tradition, which relates that the Cimmerian Bosphorus was rendered firm land by mud brought down the Tanais, by which they were originally afforded a land-passage from Asia into Europe. However this might be, they, with their wives, children, horses, and carriages, invaded the Scythians who resided on the Ister; and though they were not capable of fighting on foot, nor understood in what, manner even to walk, since they could not fix their feet firmly on the ground, but live perpetually, and even sleep, on horseback, yet by the rapidity with which they wheeled about their horses, by the suddenness of their excursions and retreat, shooting as they rode, they occasioned great slaughter among the Scythians. In this they were so incessant, that the surviving Scythians were compelled to leave their habitations to these Huns, and crossing the Ister, to supplicate the emperor to receive them, on their promise to adhere to him as faithful soldiers. The officers of the fortified towns near the Ister deferred complying with this petition, until they should learn the pleasure of the emperor, who permitted them to be received without their arms. The tribunes and other officers therefore went over to bring the Barbarians unarmed into the Roman territory; but occupied themselves solely in the gratification of their brutal appetites, or in procuring slaves, neglecting every thing that related to public affairs. A considerable number therefore crossed over with their arms, through this negligence. These, on arriving into the Roman dominion, forgot both their petition and their oaths. Thus all Thrace, Pannonia, and the whole country as far as Macedon and Thessaly were filled with Barbarians, who pillaged all in their way.
Jordanes, (circa 551 A.D)
The Roman historian Jordanes, in his book on the history of the Goths, called "Getica" (circa 551 A.D), gives a similar account as to why the White tribes (Germanics and Slavs - Turks came later) started westward into Europe.
Quote: But after a short space of time, as Orosius relates, the race of the Huns, fiercer than ferocity itself, flamed forth against the Goths. We learn from old traditions that their origin was as follows: Filimer, king of the Goths, son of Gadaric the Great, who was the fifth in succession to hold the rule of the Getae after their departure from the island of Scandza,--and who, as we have said, entered the land of Scythia with his tribe,--found among his people certain witches, whom he called in his native tongue Haliurunnae. Suspecting these women, he expelled them from the midst of his race and compelled them to wander in solitary exile afar from his army. (122) There the unclean spirits, who beheld them as they wandered through the wilderness, bestowed their embraces upon them and begat this savage race, which dwelt at first in the swamps,--a stunted, foul and puny tribe, scarcely human, and having no language save one which bore but slight resemblance to human speech. Such was the descent of the Huns who came to the country of the Goths.
(129) When the Getae beheld this active race that had invaded many nations, they took fright and consulted with their king how they might escape from such a foe. Now although Hermanaric, king of the Goths, was the conqueror of many tribes, as we have said above, yet while he was deliberating on this invasion of the Huns, the treacherous tribe of the Rosomoni, who at that time were among those who owed him their homage, took this chance to catch him unawares. For when the king had given orders that a certain woman of the tribe I have mentioned, Sunilda by name, should be bound to wild horses and torn apart by driving them at full speed in opposite directions (for he was roused to fury by her husband's treachery to him), her brothers Sarus and Ammius came to avenge their sister's death and plunged a sword into Hermanaric's side. Enfeebled by this blow, he dragged out a miserable existence in bodily weakness. (130) Balamber, king of the Huns, took advantage of his ill health to move an army into the country of the Ostrogoths, from whom the Visigoths had already separated because of some dispute. Meanwhile Hermanaric, who was unable to endure either the pain of his wound or the inroads of the Huns, died full of days at the great age of one hundred and ten years. The fact of his death enabled the Huns to prevail over those Goths who, as we have said, dwelt in the East and were called Ostrogoths.
(131) The Visigoths, who were their other allies and inhabitants of the western country, were terrified as their kinsmen had been, and knew not how to plan for safety against the race of the Huns. After long deliberation by common consent they finally sent ambassadors into Romania to the Emperor Valens, brother of Valentinian, the elder Emperor, to say that if he would give them part of Thrace or Moesia to keep, they would submit themselves to his laws and commands. That he might have greater confidence in them, they promised to become Christians, if he would give them teachers who spoke their language. (132) When Valens learned this, he gladly and promptly granted what he had himself intended to ask. He received the Getae into the region of Moesia and placed them there as a wall of defense for his kingdom against other tribes. And since at that time the Emperor Valens, who was infected with the Arian perfidy, had closed all the churches of our party, he sent as preachers to them those who favored his sect. They came and straightway filled a rude and ignorant people with the poison of their heresy. Thus the Emperor Valens made the Visigoths Arians rather than Christians. (133) Moreover, from the love they bore them, they preached the gospel both to the Ostrogoths and to their kinsmen the Gepidae, teaching them to reverence this heresy, and they invited all people of their speech everywhere to attach themselves to this sect. They themselves as we have said, crossed the Danube and settled Dacia Ripensis, Moesia and Thrace by permission of the Emperor.
The Central Asian Albino tribes began as the Albinos of the Black Dravidians of ancient India (Pakistan was originally part of India). Another Roman writer - Tacitus, describes them in Britain and answers that question.
Tacitus: Germany Book 1 
1. Germany is separated from the Galli, the Rhæti, and Pannonii, by the rivers Rhine and Danube; mountain ranges, or the fear which each feels for the other, divide it from the Sarmatæ and Daci. Elsewhere ocean girds it, embracing broad peninsulas and islands of unexplored extent, where certain tribes and kingdoms are newly known to us, revealed by war.
The name Germany, on the other hand, they say, is modern and newly introduced, from the fact that the tribes which first crossed the Rhine and drove out the Gauls, and are now called Tungrians, were then called Germans. Thus what was the name of a tribe, and not of a race, gradually prevailed, till all called themselves by this self-invented name of Germans, which the conquerors had first employed to inspire terror.
4. For my own part, I agree with those who think that the tribes of Germany are free from all taint of intermarriages with foreign nations, and that they appear as a distinct, unmixed race, like none but themselves. Hence, too, the same physical peculiarities throughout so vast a population. All have fierce blue eyes, red hair, huge frames, fit only for a sudden exertion. They are less able to bear laborious work. Heat and thirst they cannot in the least endure; to cold and hunger their climate and their soil inure them.
Note; Tacitus describes the Germanics as newly inhabiting the area north of the Roman Empire, and parts of Britain circa 100 A.D. This is before the migration period. Some accounts have the Germanic tribes inhabiting southern Scandinavia, Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg, as early as 1,200 B.C. and from there migrating to Britain. White history is so riddled with lies that there is no way to know if that is accurate.
Now today, after thousands of years, though modern Indians are themselves greatly admixed, they still make the same type of Albino.
Germany Book 1
(On the Germans going into Battle)
7. They also carry with them into battle certain figures and images taken from their sacred groves. And what most stimulates their courage is, that their squadrons or battalions, instead of being formed by chance or by a fortuitous gathering, are composed of families and clans. Close by them, too, are those dearest to them, so that they hear the shrieks of women, the cries of infants. They are to every man the most sacred witnesses of his bravery--they are his most generous applauders. The soldier brings his wounds to mother and wife, who shrink not from counting or even demanding them and who administer both food and encouragement to the combatants.
8. Tradition says that armies already wavering and giving way have been rallied by women who, with earnest entreaties and bosoms laid bare, have vividly represented the horrors of captivity, which the Germans fear with such extreme dread on behalf of their women, that the strongest tie by which a state can be bound is the being required to give, among the number of hostages, maidens of noble birth. They even believe that the sex has a certain sanctity and prescience, and they do not despise their counsels, or make light of their answers.
Clearly the indigenous Black Europeans, were killing German Males, and taking their Females as spoils of War. Thus the offspring gained the ability to produce "Some" Melanin in their skin, and the Males gained a strengthening measure of genetic diversity. But most importantly, the German females were not taken as wives, they were simply "despoiled" and allowed to return to their tribes. Y-dna does not change, it is passed from father to son, regardless of whether the father is Black or White. Thus their "Mulatto" Male offspring would retain the Y-dna haplogroup "I" of their despoiler father. When these mulatto males bred with their tribal White females, their resultant male offspring would be Quadroons (1/4) Black, but still with the Y-dna haplogroup "I" of their despoiler grandfather. When these Quadroon males bred with their tribal White females, their resultant male offspring would be Octoroons (1/8) Black, but still with the Y-dna haplogroup "I" of their despoiler great grandfather - and so on. Of course the opposite is also true on the maternal Mtdna side, a Mulatto female breeding with an Albino Y-dna haplogroup "R" male, would produce Quadroon male offspring with the Y-dna haplogroup "R" of their Albino father.
Haplogroups "I" and "R" are the predominate haplogroups in Europe. But note that "R" is not exclusively Black Dravidian (the source of European Albinos): As expected, it originated in Africa, and is still found there. Also note that some of the ancient Blacks in Germany, such as the Black skeletons found at Eulau Germany above (2,600 B.C.) were also haplogroup "R".
Quote from Tacitus: Agricola Book 1 
10. The geography and inhabitants of Britain, already described by many writers, I will speak of, not that my research and ability may be compared with theirs, but because the country was then for the first time thoroughly subdued. And so matters, which as being still not accurately known my predecessors embellished with their imagination, shall now be related on the evidence of facts.
11. Quote: Who were the original inhabitants of Britain, whether they were indigenous or foreign, is, as usual among barbarians, little known. Their physical characteristics are various, and from these conclusions may be drawn.
The red hair and large limbs of the inhabitants of Caledonia point clearly to a German origin.
The dark complexion of the Silures, their usually curly hair, and the fact that Spain is the opposite shore to them, are an evidence that Iberians of a former date crossed over and occupied these parts. Those who are nearest to the Gauls are also like them, either from the permanent influence of original descent, or, because in countries which run out so far to meet each other, climate has produced similar physical qualities.
The True Gauls
Vercingetorix was the last King of the unified Celts/Gauls of France (Normandy).
The Normans were the people who gave their name to Normandy, a region in northern France. They were descended from Viking conquerors of the territory AND the native population. Their identity emerged initially in the first half of the tenth century, and gradually evolved over succeeding centuries. The name "Normans" derives from Nortmanni (Northmen), after the Vikings who conquered Normandy.
But a general survey inclines me to believe that the Gauls established themselves in an island so near to them. Their religious belief may be traced in the strongly-marked British superstition. The language differs but little; there is the same boldness in challenging danger, and, when it is near, the same timidity in shrinking from it. The Britons, however, exhibit more spirit, as being a people whom a long peace has not yet enervated. Indeed we have understood that even the Gauls were once renowned in war; but, after a while, sloth following on ease crept over them, and they lost their courage along with their freedom. This too has happened to the long-conquered tribes of Britain; the rest are still what the Gauls once were [End quote].
by Thomas William Shore (1906)
Quote: As regards the ancient brown race or races of North Europe, there can be no doubt of their existence in the south-east of Norway and in the east of Friesland. There can be no doubt about the important influence which the old Wendish race has had in the north-eastern parts of Germany in transmitting to their descendants a more brunette complexion than prevails among the people of Hanover, Holstein, and Westphalia, of more pure Teutonic descent. Wends ( West Slavs living near Germanic settlement areas). It is believed that Germanic peoples originally applied the ethnonym to the ancient Veneti, and that after the migration period they transferred it to their new easterly neighbours, the Slavs. Following the 8th century, the Frankish kings and their successors organized nearly all Wendish land into marches. This process later turned into the series of crusades. By the 12th century, all Wendish lands had become part of the Holy Roman Empire. In the course of the Ostsiedlung, which reached its peak in the 12th to 14th centuries, this land was settled by Germans and reorganized. Due to the process of assimilation following German settlement, many Slavs west of the Oder adopted the German culture and language. (Which Germans - the indigenous Blacks or the invading Whites?)
Ostsiedlung (settlement in the east), also called German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germans from modern day western and central Germany into less-populated regions and countries of eastern Central Europe and Eastern Europe. The affected area roughly stretched from Slovenia to Estonia, and eastwards into Transylvania. In part, Ostsiedlung followed the territorial expansion of the Holy Roman Empire and the Teutonic Order. (Right away we see the problem with White history and it's terminology). As we shall see, the Holy Roman Empire was a Black Empire, thus the Ostsiedlung is really about resurgent Blacks forcing Whites (Visigoth's) back east into Eastern Europe.The consideration of the evidence that people of brunette complexions were among the Anglo-Saxon settlers in England leads on to that of people of a still darker hue, the dark, black, or brown-black settlers. Probably there must have been some of these among the Anglo-Saxons, for we meet with the personal names Blacman, Blaecman, Blakernan, Blacaman, Blac'sunu, Blsecca, and Blacheman, in various documents of the period.
The Old English term for the darker-complexioned Britons brown men or black men Wealas. (Wealas - which is what the new Anglo-Saxon people called the native Celtic inhabitants of England). There is another old word used by the Anglo-Saxons to denote black or brown-black the word sweart. The personal names Suart and Sueart may have been derived from this word, and may have originally denoted people of a dark-brown or black complexion. The so-called black men of the Anglo-Saxon period probably included some of the darker Wendish people among them, immigrants or descendants of people of the same race as the ancestors of the Sorbs (Wends) of Lausatia (a region on the territory of Germany and Poland) on the borders of Saxony and Prussia at the present day (Germany). Some of the darker Wends may well have been among the Black Vikings referred to in the Irish annals. (Pause quotes from "Our Darker Forefathers").
New York Times
English, Irish, Scots: They’re All One, Genes Suggest
Genetic study reveals 30% of white British DNA has German ancestry:
Vikings were not very literate; they made inscriptions in runes (related alphabets) on wood, bone, and stone. Their history is compiled from these and their Sagas. Sagas are stories about ancient Scandinavians and Germanic peoples; and about early Viking voyages and battles in prose form. Annals were originally a means by which monks determined the yearly chronology of feast days. Over time, obituaries were added, along with notable political events.
p. 218- 219
There was a man hight Thorvard; he married Freydis, a natural daughter of Erik the Red; he went also with them, and Thorvald the son of Erik, 1 and Thorhall who was called the hunter; he had long been with Erik, and served him as huntsman in summer and steward in winter; he was a large man, and strong, black and like a giant, silent and foul-mouthed in his speech.
Kveldulf and his wife had two sons, the elder was named Thorolf, the younger Grim; these, when they grew up, were both tall men and strong, as was their father. But Thorolf was most comely as well as doughty, favoring his mother's kin; very cheery was he, liberal, impetuous in everything, a good trader, winning the hearts of all men. Grim was swarthy, ill-favoured, like his father both in face and mind.
Egil was large-featured, broad of forehead, with large eyebrows, a nose not long but very thick, lips wide and long, chin exceeding broad, as was all about the jaws; thick-necked was he, and big-shouldered beyond other men, hard-featured, and grim when angry. He was well-made, more than commonly tall, had hair wolf-gray and thick, but became early bald. He was black-eyed and brown-skinned.
But be warned, you can never trust Albino translators of ancient texts. There are many cases where the Albino translator used their position of trust to introduce false wordings or meanings designed to further false Albino history. It is already proven that Blacks were indigenous to the British Isles, and other Blacks were invaders of those Isles. But note how Albino translators of this one piece of the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, tries to make it appear that Blacks were in Ireland because they were taken to Ireland by Vikings.
Corpus of Electronic Texts Edition
translated by Joan Newlon Radner Electronic edition compiled by Beatrix Färber, Maxim Fomin, Emer Purcell
Funded by University College Cork and
Professor Marianne McDonald via the CELT Project.
translated by Joan Newlon Radner Electronic edition compiled by Beatrix Färber, Maxim Fomin, Emer Purcell
867 At this time came the Aunites (that is, the Danes) with innumerable armies to York, and they sacked the city, and they overcame it; and that was the beginning of harassment and misfortunes for the Britons; for it was not long before this that there had been every war and every trouble in Norway, and this was the source of that war in Norway: two younger sons of Albdan, king of Norway, drove out the eldest son, i.e. Ragnall son of Albdan, for fear that he would seize the kingship of Norway after their father. So Ragnall came with his three sons to the Orkneys. Ragnall stayed there then, with his youngest son. The older sons, however, filled with arrogance and rashness, proceeded with a large army, having mustered that army from all quarters, to march against the Franks and Saxons. They thought that their father would return to Norway immediately after their departure.
Then their arrogance and their youthfulness incited them to voyage across the Cantabrian Ocean (i.e. the sea that is between Ireland and Spain) and they reached Spain, and they did many evil things in Spain, both destroying and plundering. After that they proceeded across the Gaditanean Straits (i.e. the place where the Irish Sea sic goes into the surrounding
ocean), so that they reached Africa, and they waged war against the Mauritanians, and made a great slaughter of the Mauritanians. However, as they were going to this battle, one of the sons said to the other, ‘Brother,’ he said, ‘we are very foolish and mad to be killing ourselves going from country to country throughout the world, and not to be defending our own patrimony, and doing the will of our father, for he is alone now, sad and discouraged in a land not his own, since the other son whom we left along with him has been slain, as has been revealed to me.’ It would seem that that was revealed to him in a dream vision; and his Ragnall's other son was slain in battle; and moreover, the father himself barely escaped from that battle—which dream proved to be true.
While he was saying that, they saw the Mauritanian forces coming towards them, and when the son who spoke the above words saw that, he leaped suddenly into the battle, and attacked the king of the Mauritanians, and gave bim a blow with a great sword and cut off his hand. There was hard fighting on both sides in this battle, and neither of them won the victory from the other in that battle. But all returned to camp, after many among them had been slain. However, they challenged each other to come to battle the next day.
The king of the Mauritanians escaped from the camp and fled in the night after his hand had been cut off. When the morning came, the Norwegians seized their weapons and readied themselves firmly and bravely for the battle. The Mauritanians, however, when they noticed that their king had departed, fled after they had been terribly slain. Thereupon the Norwegians swept across the country, and they devastated and burned the whole land. Then they brought a great host of them captive with them to Ireland, i.e. those are the black men. For Mauri is the same as nigri; 'Mauritania' is the same as nigritudo. Hardly one in three of the Norwegians escaped, between those who were slain, and those who drowned in the Gaditanian Straits. Now those black men remained in Ireland for a long time. Mauritania is located across from the Balearic Islands.
The Norsemen in Kiev in 1018, despite their unquestioned Swedish origin, were described by Thietmar of Merseburg ( Prince-Bishop of Merseburg Germany, 1009–1018 ) as being for the most part Danes. The Irish annalists were a lesson to all with their division of Norse invaders into White Foreigners, Norwegians (Finn-gaill), and Black Foreigners, Danes (Dubh-gaill), but it was a lesson no one heeded; nor do we know why they distinguished them by colour.
The Welsh chroniclers, for example, made no such clear distinction. The Danes coming in by way of England and the Norwegians coming in by way of Ireland were pretty well all black: Black Gentiles (y Kenedloed Duon), Black Norsemen (y Normanyeit Duon), Black Host, Pagans, Devils and the like.
(Resume quotes from "Our Darker Forefathers").
In the Irish annals the Black Vikings are called Dubh-Ghenti, or Black Gentiles. These Black Gentiles on some occasions fought against other plunderers of the Irish coasts known as the Fair Gentiles, who can hardly have been others than the fair Danes or Northmen. In the year 851 the Black Gentiles came to Athcliath i.e., Dublin. In 852 we are told that eight ships of the Finn-Ghenti arrived and fought against the Dubh-Ghenti for three days, and that the Dubh-Ghenti were victorious. The Black Vikings appear at this time to have had a settlement in or close to Dublin, and during the ninth century were much in evidence on the Irish coast. In 877 a great battle was fought at Lock-Cuan between them and the Fair Gentiles, in which Albann Chief of the Black Gentiles fell. He may well have been a chieftain of the race of the Northern Sorbs of the Mecklenburg coast.
There is still another way in which men of black hair or complexions may have come into England, as Thralls (serf or unfree servant) among the Norse invaders. In his translation of ' Orosius,' King Alfred inserts the account which Othere, the Norse mariner, gave him of the tribute in skins, eiderdown, whalebone, and ropes made from whale and seal skins, which the Northern Fins, now called Lapps, paid to the Northmen. Their descendants are among the darkest people of Europe, and as they were thralls, some of them may have accompanied their lords. The Danes and Norse, having the general race characteristics of tall, fair men, must have been sharply distinguished in appearance from Vikings, such as those of Jomborg, for many of these were probably of a dark complexion. There is an interesting record of the descent of dark sea-rovers on the coast of North Wales in the 'Annales Cambriae,' under the year 987, which tells us that Gothrit, son of Harald, with black men, devastated Anglesea, and captured two thousand men.
Another entry in the same record tells us that Meredut redeemed the captives from the black men. This account in the Welsh annals receives some confirmation in the Sagas of the Norse Kings, one of which tells us that Olav Trygvesson was for three years, 982-985, King in Vindland i.e., W T endland where he resided with his Queen, to whom he was much attached; but on her death, whose loss he greatly felt, he had no more pleasure in Vindland. He therefore provided himself with ships and went on a Viking expedition, first plundering Friesland and the coast all the way to Flanders. Thence he sailed to Northumberland, plundered its coast and those of Scotland, Man, Cumberland, and Bretland i.e., Wales during the years 985-988, calling himself a Russian under the name of Ode. From these two separate accounts there can be but little doubt, notwithstanding the differences in the names, of the descent on the coast of North Wales at this time of dark sea-rovers under a Scandinavian leader, and it is difficult to see who they were if not dark-complexioned Wends or other allies of the Norsemen.
It is possible some of these dark Vikings may have been allies or mercenaries from the South of Europe, where the Norse made conquests. As regards the evidence concerning black-haired settlers in England at a still earlier date, there is the story of the two Anglian priests named the Black and Fair Hewald, who, following the example of Willibord among the Frisians, went into Saxony as missionaries, and on coming to a village were admitted to the house of the head man, who promised to protect them, and send them on to the ealdorman of the district. They devoted themselves to prayer and religious observances, which were misunderstood by the pagan rustics, who apparently were afraid of magical arts. At any rate, these strange rites, so novel to them, aroused suspicion among the people, who thought that if these Angles were allowed to meet the ealdorman they might draw him away from their gods, and before long draw away the whole province from the observances of their forefathers.
|The British museum lyingly? delusionally? calls this man an African. Calling all Black artifacts found in Europe "AFRICANS" has historically been the Albinos favorite way to hide the fact that Blacks, NOT Albinos, are the original people of Europe.|
So they slew both the Black and Fair Hewald, whose names in subsequent Christian time were, and still are, held in high honour in Westphalia. It is a touching story, and one that tells us more than the devotion, inspired by Christian zeal to risk their lives, which these missionaries showed for the conversion of men of their own race ; for, as their names indicate, they bore in their different complexions evidence of the existence of the fair and dark people among the Anglo-Saxon stock. As already mentioned, the name Brunswick appears to be one of significance, and the Wendish names in that part of Germany, Wendeburg, Wendhausen, and Wenden, may be compared with the Buckinghamshire Domesday names Wendovre, Weneslai, and Wandene, and with Bright, Wenriga or Wenrige in Hertfordshire. The probable connection of the Wends some tribes of whom, such as the Sorbs, are known to have been dark with parts of Germany near Brunswick, and with parts of Herts and Bucks, is shown by these names. The Domesday Book tells us of huscarls in Buckinghamshire, and of people who bore such names as Suarting, Suiert, Suen, Suert, and Suiuard, among its land-holders, and it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that such names refer to people of dark complexions. Among the lahmens of Lincoln, a very Danish town, there were also apparently some so-called Danes of a dark complexion, for Domesday Book mentions Suartin, son of Gribold; Suardine, son of Hardenut; and Suartine Sortsbrand: son of Ulf [End quote].
A caution on sources
Please note: The ancient texts that are quoted here, must be taken in the context of our current reality. Whites have the ancient materials, and provide the showings and the translations. As has been shown with the statues and stele, where noses have been changed or broken off: so it is with the texts. They truthfulness and accuracy of the presented product, is totally dependant on who processed it. Some Whites are honest, but experience indicates that most are degenerate liars (read any history book). Sometimes the lies are small, and sometimes they are huge. Sometimes an apparently small and unimportant lie, is actually a big lie, in that it changes the overall meaning. The two main sources for on-line Ancient Texts, are the "Internet Sacred Text Archive" and The "Internet Archive" both are excellent, but both depend on voluntary translations and scanning. The on-line free encyclopedia "Wikipedia" also depends on voluntary donation of articles. And all have the same problem, if a lying racist submits material, who but an expert would know, thus the lies become quoted fact.
The writings quoted above are not new, most of it has been in existence for almost 2,000 years. Transitioning away from the ancient, which was honestly written, to that of the modern era, in which little is truthful or honest is difficult, so we will use the medium of example. As a reminder: in the material above, Blacks were clearly identified as Vikings.
But this disassociation with fact and reality is not a phenomenon of only "Right Wing" Albinos. The Turks and Turk mulattoes of Egypt, responded in the same way when Louis Gossett, Jr. was chosen to play the part of former Egyptian president Anwar Sadat in a planned movie. Further, all over the former civilized ancient world, the current Albino occupiers and their mulattoes, claim to be the descendants of the original Black inhabitants. Further still, they claim that the original Black people were in fact, just like them - Albinos and mulattoes. But most incredibly, in places where there are still Black descendants of the Black ancients - they teach them that they were brought there as Slaves! Clearly Albinos have a predisposition to delusion, fantasy, and lying. And they do not limit themselves to just saying or writing such things, rather, they actively engage in falsification of artifacts and ancient writings - and when necessary Genocide.
Having established those truths about Albinos, we may now consider the Germanic Albinos of Britain and Germany - perhaps the most ruthless, duplicitous, and successful of them all. These Germanic Albinos have tried mightily to eradicate all vestiges of their former Black kings, Queens, Lords, and Knights - including their persons, more on that later.
Those artifacts that the Albinos chose not to destroy, they "Whitenize". That is to say that they remove dark flesh coloring and replace it with White or light flesh coloring. Illuminated manuscripts from the British Library demonstrate the varying degrees of their success, or lack of it. In some cases, it is clear that they went so far as to make a copy of the entire manuscript, and in the doing, incorporated the necessary changes.
In this case, these Black Knights of the Black Holy Roman Empire (Germany) were lighten to blend in.
|Sometimes when it is very small, they miss it entirely. King Edward III Wearing Armour In A Historiated Initial. So small it was missed - thankfully!|
Here King Edward III is noticeably lighter.
In this case, the Black Lord approaching what appears to be Henry VIII, was also lightened to blend in.
Sometimes the people tasked with modifying the artifacts are totally incompetent - see text below.
This Knight has not been Whitenized, that can only mean that he is to be identified as Saint Maurice
One rather unsettling convention that they have established (unsettling because Blacks believe it), is to declare every singular Black Knight in full armor, whether tall or short, old or young, clean shaven or bearded - the mythical Egyptian general of ancient Rome - Saint Maurice. No matter that this knight is in full medieval armor, NOT Roman armor - he is still Saint Maurice.
Obviously these Knights were real medieval people, having nothing to do with Saint Maurice.
For some unfathomable reason: Orthodox Christian Churches, for the most part, unlike Catholic and Protestant Churches, have allowed the original Black christians to remain Black - albeit sometimes with white features.
|Saint Keby and Saint Seiriol
Seiriol was an early 6th century saint, who created a cell at Penmon Priory on Anglesey, off the coast of north Wales. He later moved to Ynys Seiriol (Puffin Island). He was a son of King Owain Danwyn of Rhos.
According to legend, he and Saint Cybi were good friends, and would meet weekly near Llanerchymedd, at the Clorach wells. Saint Cybi would walk from Holyhead, facing the rising sun in the morning and setting sun in the evening. Saint Cybi was known as Cybi Felyn (Cybi the Tanned), as he was tanned during his journey. Seiriol, travelling in the opposite direction, from Penmon, would have his back to the sun. Thus, he was known as Seiriol Wyn (Seiriol the Fair). Rhyd-y-Saint railway station (English: Ford of the Saints railway station) on the Red Wharf Bay branch line near Pentraeth, was named so as Seiriol and Cybi are said to have met there.
Seiriol was a younger brother of King Cynlas of Rhos and King Einion of Llŷn. His cell at Penmon is said to have been rebuilt by his brothers, as they didn't think his humble residence was good enough. St Seiriol's Well (Ffynnon Seiriol) lies in a small chamber adjoining its remains. Both are protected by Cadw, the publicly-funded body responsible for the historic monuments of Wales. Adjacent to them are the church and ruins of a monastery also dating back to Seiriol's day.
In his old age, Seiriol retired to Ynys Lannog which subsequently became known (in Welsh) as Ynys Seiriol. Later it would be known to the Vikings as Priestholm, and is known as Puffin Island in English since the 19th century.
Icon of All Saints of the British Isles and Ireland (Eastern Orthodox Church) - Saint Seraphim Church, Little Walsingham, Norfolk England.
The fall of Jerusalem
After the fall and destruction of Jerusalem by the then pagan Romans in 70 A.D, the natural learning centers of the Christian Church were Antioch (now Syria), Alexandria (Egypt), and Babylon, Iraq. The Jewish (Khazar) Talmud was written in Babylon.
The divided Empire
In 284 A.D. the Roman Empire was divided into two parts, Eastern and Western, by Emperor Diocletian. The Eastern Empire was controlled by Emperor Diocletian and the western empire by Emperor Maximian, but Diocletian retained absolute power over both halves. Later, circa 307 A.D. Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity and built a new capital, Constantinople, where Byzantium used to be, in the Eastern Empire as his capital.
Christianity as the state religion of the Roman Empire
The first Council of Nicaea (325 A.D.) formalized Christianity as the state religion of the Roman Empire, and Rome became the center of Christianity. When Rome was sacked by the Albino Germanics in 410 A.D, though the Papacy remained in Rome, Constantinople became predominant. In 800 A.D. Pope Leo III crowned Charles I, king of the Franks (Charlemagne) as Holy Roman Emperor (even though there was already a Roman Emperor in Constantinople). Under the protection of the Frankish Emperors, the Pope was once again able to exert authority.
The divided Church
The East–West Schism of 1054, sometimes known as the Great Schism, formally divided the State church of the Roman Empire into Eastern (Greek) and Western (Latin) branches, which later became known as the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church, respectively. Relations between East and West had long been embittered by political and ecclesiastical differences and theological disputes. There was no single event that marked the breakdown, in the centuries immediately before the schism became definitive, a few short schisms between Constantinople and Rome were followed by reconciliation's.
Pope Leo IX of Rome and Patriarch of Constantinople Michael Cerularius heightened the conflict by suppressing Greek and Latin in their respective domains. In 1054, Roman legates traveled to Michael Cerularius to deny him the title Ecumenical Patriarch (first among equals), and to insist that he recognize the Church of Rome's claim to be the head and mother of the churches, Cerularius refused. The leader of the Latin contingent, Cardinal Humbert, excommunicated Cerularius, while Cerularius in return excommunicated Cardinal Humbert and the other legates. Though efforts were made to reunite the two churches in 1274 (by the Second Council of Lyon) and in 1439 (by the Council of Florence) they ended in failure.
Today, the Eastern Orthodox Church, being continuous, still depicts the original Christians as they really were - as Blacks, (though somewhat Whitenized). The Western Church and its off-shoots: Roman Catholic, Anglican, Anabaptist, Baptist, Congregational, Lutheran, Methodist, Presbyterian, Pentecostal, Quaker, Reformed, etc: apparently unafraid of damnation for Heresy, chooses to falsely depict them as Albinos.
Click here for a list of the Saints and their locations. Click >>>
Unfortunately our luck with the illuminated manuscripts could not be repeated with portraits. They have all been Whitenized almost beyond recognition. An interesting note here: the Germanics of Germany are known to be very exacting, yet they have allowed "Some" of their Black Emperors and Lords to remain identifiable as Blacks - Guilt, Begrudging respect? The British and Russians on the other hand, have allowed only one each to remain in existence, Queen Charlotte for the British, and Tsar Peter III for the Russians. The logic of why these two were allowed to remain in existence is beyond the understanding of normal humans, only the Albino mind can understand it - but we are of course grateful.
One of the rites of the Elizabethan court was the giving of jewels to the Queen, usually to mark the New Year, and the occasional gift by the Queen of jewels and portrait miniatures to favored servants and defenders of the realm. After Drake circumnavigated the globe, he gave Queen Elizabeth a composite jewel token made with rare materials gathered from around the globe: a ship with an ebony hull, enameled gold taken from a prize off the Pacific coast of Mexico, a diamond from Africa. The ship was the instrument that extended the Queen’s potency around the world, so an apposite image for a gift meant to celebrate her.
Elizabeth’s gift to Sir Francis Drake is similarly evocative: one side is a locket with a portrait of the Queen by Nicholas Hilliard with a cover featuring on the interior her avian emblem, the phoenix. A miniature portrait was the single most frequent gift given by Elizabeth I to persons she would reward. It projected her image as monarch, equipped with state clothes and regalia and asserting a personal connection with the recipient as well as a political relationship. On another occasion Elizabeth I gave Drake a second miniature portrait, in which she stood at the focus of a sunburst, to use as a hat badge. That Drake, a commoner who rose to the position of state champion on the raid to Cadiz and Vice-Admiral of the Armada, was so honored marked his extraordinary place in the world.
© National Maritime Museum, London.
More fascinating to present admirers of the Drake Jewel is the other side with the intaglio cut cameo of sardonyx featuring an African male bust in profile superimposed over the profile of a European. There is some debate whether the European is a regal woman or a Roman Briton of the sort William Camden was idealizing in his Britannia. It is not the face of any contemporary man—and certainly not Drake—for it is clean shaven.
The Jewel was probably manufactured and given between 1586 and 1588. It appears hanging conspicuously from Drake’s belt, the chief ornament of his person, in the 1591 portrait painted by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger now at the National Maritime Museum in London.
Ah, but as we always find, what the Albinos say, and what is the truth, is rarely the same. What is true, is that when the Albinos encounter a Black artifact that could not be destroyed - for whatever reason. The seek to hide it's true identity with some made-up story, or some subterfuge (note the portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V). In this case, they falsely identify a pendant of two men: one Black, one Albino, with the Black man being the most important by virtue of his being in the foreground, as the "Drake Jewel". It is a Lie! This pendant looks nothing like the "True" Drake Jewel below (right).
Click on this line to continue
Throughout these pages we present portraits of Black Europeans - people that until now weren't supposed to have existed. We are always on the lookout for newly uncovered Black art, and present it as soon as we find it.
As sites like this one make people aware of the real truths of history: more and more people are becoming involved in uncovering the surviving Black art in Europe.
According to the Tumblr site: http://diasporicroots.tumblr.com/
Quote: The British Museum Archive has hundreds of small prints, engravings, sketches and studies of Black people in England from the Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Early Modern eras. Racist caricatures don’t begin to show up until after 1800, for the most part.
We hope that's true, that there is hundreds hidden there, as well as in the hundreds of museums across Europe. True, we still don't have free access to them, but at least hopefully, the art wasn't destroyed. The hope for these Tumblr sites and those to come, is that they stop taking the Albino stories associated with the artwork, at face value. Logically that makes no sense, the fact that the artwork even exists, demonstrates the Albinos lies: so then, how are they to know when the Albinos have stopped lying? Each piece of artwork must be cross-referenced and researched by itself.
THE MEDIEVAL HOUSEHOLD.
The classical model of the medieval household, particularly as it evolved in Carolingian France and from there spread over great parts of Europe.
As a result of the military nature of the medieval noble household, its composition was predominately male. The higher level positions – in particular those attending on the lord – were often filled by men of rank: sons of the lord's relatives, or his retainers.
The presence of servants of noble birth imposed a social hierarchy on the household that went parallel to the hierarchy dictated by function.
THE KNIGHTS, SQUIRES AND PAGES.
The main occupants of the Medieval Castle could be divided into two basic groups - the knights and the servants. The life of the Medieval Knights and their retinues centered around enhancing their Knightly skills in the use of weapons, horsemanship and medieval warfare.
The sons of the Nobility, except those who were destined to take Holy Orders, were placed in the service of the great Lords of the land.
These children were sent to live in the castle of their liege lord and commence their education as a Knight. The castle served as a 'Knight School!' A knight would start their life in a castle as a Page and then move up to the role of a Squire.
LIFE OF THE PAGE
The life of a castle Page would start at a very young age - seven years old. A Page was junior to a Squire. It was the duty of a Page to wait at table, care for the Lord's clothes and assist them in dressing. The Page was provided with a uniform of the colors and livery of the Lord.
LIFE OF THE SQUIRE
The life of a Squire (also called Esquire) would start as a teenager, usually fourteen years of age. A Squire was junior to a Knight. It was the duty of a Squire to learn about the Code of Chivalry, the rules of Heraldry, horsemanship and practice the use of weapons. It was also their duty to enter into the social life of the castle and learn courtly etiquette, music and dancing. The Squire served in this role for seven years and became a Knight at the age of twenty-one. Sometimes knighthood was conferred earlier as the reward for bravery on the battlefield
LIFE OF THE KNIGHT
It was the duty of a Knight to learn how to fight and so serve their Lord according to the Code of Chivalry.
A status symbol is a perceived visible, external denotation of one's social position and perceived indicator of economic or social status. Many luxury goods are often considered status symbols. Mercedes-Benz luxury vehicles are status symbols in many cultures.
Article from the Daily Telegraph Media Group Limited Jan. 2015
Main Quote: No one can be sure of the exact figure, but it is estimated that the destruction started and legalised by Cromwell amounted to 97% of the English art then in existence. Statues were hacked down. Frescoes were smashed to bits. Mosaics were pulverized. Illuminated manuscripts were shredded. Wooden carvings were burned. Precious metalwork was melted down. Shrines were reduced to rubble. This vandalism went way beyond a religious reform. It was a frenzy, obliterating the artistic patrimony of centuries of indigenous craftsmanship with an intensity of hatred for imagery and depicting the divine that has strong and resonant parallels today.
A page dedicated to Additional Black European art is here: Click >>>