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Ancient Man and His First Civilizations


Modern Palestine-Israel-Lebanon




When last we left Canaan, the Canaanites were being squeezed out by new Amorite invaders. Now more pressure was being put on the Canaanites by another group of Amorites, this group had just been expelled from Egypt, where they were known as the Hyksos. These Amorites/Hebrews settled in Canaan also.

Click Here for page on the 15th./Hyksos Dynasty in Egypt >>>

Hebrew numbers had already been greatly increased by the second wave of semi-nomadic Hebrew tribes. And also by many settled Canaanites, (i.e, the Gibeonites), who joined the invaders against their city dwelling neighbors. Now with the addition of these new Hyksos, who by virtue of their experiences in Sumer and Egypt, were educated and highly skilled, the Hebrews could now begin to build a country. Wars raged and cities were destroyed.

The Hebrews began building amid the ruins of the cities that they had destroyed, and new settlements sprang up rapidly all through the hill country. The first Hebrew king was selected by the prophet Samuel, a prophet of great influence and authority. Samuel is depicted in various biblical accounts, as either favoring or not favoring the reign of a human king over Israel. In any case, he anointed Saul, a courageous military leader of the tribe of Benjamin, as the first king - in about 1020 B.C. It is not clear if Samuel consulted with others, such as an assembly, before making this appointment.


The Hyksos statues below, were identified as Hyksos statues by the eminent François Auguste Ferdinand Mariette (1821 – 1881) French scholar, Archaeologist, Egyptologist, and the founder of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Please click the text "Book Page" below the picture, for a full sized image of the statues, and his notes on the statues.



Apepa probably had the longest reign of all Hyksos kings. His personal name Apepy (Greek: Apopis) was obviously taken from the Egyptian god Apep and his throne name means - "Great and Powerful Like Re". He's believed to have been a well educated ruler who got into a war he was strongly opposed to.

He probably triggered it himself by sending a provocative letter (now in British Museum) where he addresses the Egyptian king Tao II in Thebes with a complaint that was really odd.

He wrote that he couldn't sleep at night because he was disturbed by the snoring and roaring of king Tao's hippopotami in Thebes 800 km to the south!. Soon after this message, king Tao is believed to have taken up arms against him and thereby the war of liberation was started. It's quite possible that his power at this late state of his reign had been going over to others, and the letter was a product of their will, and not his own. Manetho (by Flavius) gives him a 36 yearlong reign and scholars of today up to 42 years to around 1600-1559 B.C.

Click here for an account of the Egyptians response to Apepy

Book page










In keeping with the lies and falsifications of the Turks who currently rule Egypt - and the so-called "Arab" countries. The Shepherd Kings statue below: is exhibited in the Cairo museum as "Double statue of Amenemhet III as Nile God". Please make your own judgment

Boston Public Library
Statues of Shepherd Kings
BPLDC no.: 08_04_000038
Page Title: Statues of Shepherd Kings
Collection: Tupper Scrapbooks Collection
Album: Volume 26: Lower Egypt. Pyramids.
Call no. 4098B.104 v26 (p. 37)

Creator: Tupper, William Vaughn
Description: Scrapbook page containing a photograph of a statue of the Shepherd Kings (two sphinx-like figures), annotated with information about the significance of the figures. There are also drawings of the cartouche of Pasebxanu I.

Egyptian (ancient)

"[Ti?] n'y a pas de monuments que appartiennent plus incontestablement à l'époque agitée qui vit les Pasteurs maîtres de l'Egypte."

Shepherd Kings
Two Asiatic looking figures standing on a single base before sacrificial tables which are lavishly adorned with aquatic plants birds and fishes. The character of the faces resemble the Hyksos Sphinx and their matted (or wavy) beards, plaited hair, and ornaments and bracelets on their armsdistinguish them from other Egyptian monuments. The name of Psusennes-Psioukhanou, Pasebxanu XXI Dynasty was added at a later date.

Who are whence were The Shepherds is not very definitely known. Rawlinson calls them "a collection of all the nomadic hoardes of Syria and Arabia" an overwhelming floor of a quarter of a million of men who swooped down upon, conquered and occupied the delta, the Fayoum, and Lower Nile valley. The upper Nile paid tribute to them but was never conquered them. Their reign was 200 @ 500 years - They were driven out by Aahmes.

Language: English and French, photograph titled in French
Notes: Title supplied by cataloger, derived from captions or annotated information. Cartouche attributed to E.A.W. Budge, British Museum.
Photographer: Sébah, J. Pascal
Title: (Musèe Ghizeh) Les Rois Pasteurs 209
Caption: Statues of Shepherd Kings Found at Tanis. Grey Granite.
Date: ca. 1860-1890

Click Here for large size book page and statue: Click >>>









The Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus (56-118 A.D.) had these thoughts on the origins of the Hebrews.

This is in the context of Titus Caesar, who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea (70 A.D.)

Tacitus: History Book 5

2. As I am about to relate the last days of a famous city, it seems appropriate to throw some light on its origin. Some say that the Jews were fugitives from the island of Crete, who settled on the nearest coast of Africa about the time when Saturn was driven from his throne by the power of Jupiter. Evidence of this is sought in the name. There is a famous mountain in Crete called Ida; the neighbouring tribe, the Idaei, came to be called Judaei by a barbarous lengthening of the national name. Others assert that in the reign of Isis the overflowing population of Egypt, led by Hierosolymus and Judas, discharged itself into the neighbouring countries. Many, again, say that they were a race of Ethiopian origin, who in the time of king Cepheus were driven by fear and hatred of their neighbours to seek a new dwelling-place. Others describe them as an Assyrian horde who, not having sufficient territory, took possession of part of Egypt, and founded cities of their own in what is called the Hebrew country, lying on the borders of Syria. Others, again, assign a very distinguished origin to the Jews, alleging that they were the Solymi, a nation celebrated in the poems of Homer, who called the city which they founded Hierosolyma after their own name.



In Greek mythology, Solymus (Solymos) was the ancestral hero and eponym of the tribe Solymi in Pisidia. Pisidia was a region of ancient Anatolia corresponding roughly to the modern-day province of Antalya in Turkey. Today Antalya City is the fifth-most populous city in Turkey and the capital of its eponymous province of Antalya.

Owing to its proximity to the known Hebrew city of Harran (see the Biblical story of Abraham - Genesis 11:27-32). Those guessing Solymi as the genesis of the Amorites/Hebrews may be the closest to the truth.


3. Most writers, however, agree in stating that once a disease, which horribly disfigured the body, broke out over Egypt; that king Bocchoris, seeking a remedy, consulted the oracle of Hammon, and was bidden to cleanse his realm, and to convey into some foreign land this race detested by the gods. The people, who had been collected after diligent search, finding themselves left in a desert, sat for the most part in a stupor of grief, till one of the exiles, Moyses by name, warned them not to look for any relief from God or man, forsaken as they were of both, but to trust to themselves, taking for their heaven-sent leader that man who should first help them to be quit of their present misery. They agreed, and in utter ignorance began to advance at random. Nothing, however, distressed them so much as the scarcity of water, and they had sunk ready to perish in all directions over the plain, when a herd of wild asses was seen to retire from their pasture to a rock shaded by trees. Moyses followed them, and, guided by the appearance of a grassy spot, discovered an abundant spring of water. This furnished relief. After a continuous journey for six days, on the seventh they possessed themselves of a country, from which they expelled the inhabitants, and in which they founded a city and a temple.



The Shasu


Shasu is an Egyptian word for semitic-speaking pastoral cattle nomads who appeared in the Levant from the late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age or Third Intermediate Period of Egypt. They were organized in clans under a tribal chieftain, and were described as brigands active from the Jezreel Valley to Ashkelon and the Sinai. The name evolved from a transliteration of the Egyptian word š3sw, meaning "those who move on foot", into the term for Bedouin-type wanderers. The term first originated in a fifteenth century list of peoples in Transjordan. It is used in a list of enemies inscribed on column bases at the temple of Soleb built by Amenhotep III. Copied later by either Seti I or Ramesses II at Amarah-West, the list mentions six groups of Shashu: the Shasu of S'rr, the Shasu of Lbn, the Shasu of Sm't, the Shasu of Wrbr, the Shasu of Yhw, and the Shasu of Pysps.





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