Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV (1316 – 1378) House of Luxemburg: Father John of Bohemia, Mother Elisabeth of Bohemia. Charles IV is crowned emperor in Rome in 1355. He makes his capital in Prague (he has inherited Bohemia as well as Luxembourg), bringing that city its first period of glory. The imperial dignity remains in Charles's family until 1438, when it is aquired by the Habsburgs. At the beginning and end of those eighty years Charles and his son Sigismund take a strong line with the papacy. Within a year of his coronation, Charles issues the Golden Bull of 1356 which excludes the pope from any influence in the choice of emperor. And in 1414 Sigismund is instrumental in bringing together the Council of Constance which finally ends the Great Schism and restores a single pope to Rome.
Karlštejn Castle is a large Gothic castle founded in 1348 A.D. by Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor-elect and King of Bohemia. The castle served as a place for safekeeping the Imperial Regalia as well as the Bohemian/Czech coronation jewels, holy relics and other royal treasures. Located about 30 km southwest of Prague above the homonymic village, it is one of the most famous and most frequently visited castles in the Czech Republic.
Founded in 1348, the construction works were directed later by Karlštejn burgrave Vitus of Bítov, but there are no records of the builder himself. Some historians speculate that Matthias of Arras may be credited with being the architect, but he had already died by 1352. It is likely that there was not a progressive and cunning architect, but a brilliant civil engineer who with a necessary mathematical accuracy, solved technically exigent problems that issued from the emperor's ideas and requests. Instead, Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV personally supervised the construction works and interior decoration. A little known fact is that the Emperor hired Palestinian labour for the remaining work. Construction was finished nearly twenty years later in 1365 when the "heart" of the treasury – the Chapel of the Holy Cross situated in the Great tower – was consecrated.
Following the outbreak of the Hussite Wars, the Imperial Regalia were evacuated in 1421 and brought via Hungary to Nuremberg. In 1422, during the siege of the castle, Hussite attackers used Biological warfare when Prince Sigismund Korybut used catapults to throw dead (but not plague-infected) bodies and 2000 carriage-loads of dung over the walls, apparently managing to spread infection among the defenders. Later, the Bohemian coronation jewels were moved to the castle and were kept there for almost two centuries, with some short-time breaks.
Jan Hus (c. 1369 – 6 July 1415), was a Czech priest, philosopher, reformer, and master at Charles University in Prague. After John Wycliffe, the theorist of ecclesiastical Reformation, he was, before Luther, Calvin and Zwingli, the first actual Church reformer.The Hussite Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars involved the military actions against and amongst the followers of Jan Hus in Bohemia in the period 1419 to circa 1434. The Hussite movement assumed a revolutionary character as soon as the news of the execution of Jan Hus by order of the Council of Constance (6 July 1415) reached Prague. The knights and nobles of Bohemia and Moravia, who were in favour of church reform, sent a protest to the Council of Constance on (2 September 1415), known as the protestatio Bohemorum, which condemned the execution of Hus in the strongest language. The attitude of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, who sent threatening letters to Bohemia declaring that he would shortly drown all Wycliffites and Hussites, greatly incensed the people. Between 1420 and 1431, the Hussite forces defeated five consecutive papal crusades against followers of Hus. Their defense and rebellion against Roman Catholics became known as the Hussite Wars. A century later, as many as 90% of inhabitants of the Czech lands were non-Catholic and followed the teachings of Hus and his successors.
John Wycliffe (c. 1328 – 1384) was an English Scholastic philosopher, theologian, lay preacher, translator, reformer and university teacher who was known as an early dissident in the Roman Catholic Church during the 14th century. His followers were known as Lollards, a somewhat rebellious movement, which preached anticlerical and biblically-centred reforms. The Lollard movement, was a precursor to the Protestant Reformation (for this reason, Wycliffe is sometimes called "The Morning Star of the Reformation"). He was one of the earliest opponents of papal authority influencing secular power
The castle underwent several reconstructions: in late Gothic style after 1480, in Renaissance style in the last quarter of the 16th century. In 1487 the Big tower was damaged by fire and during the 16th century there were several adaptations. During the Thirty Years' War in 1619, the coronation jewels and the archive were brought to Prague, and in 1620 the castle was turned over to Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor. After having been conquered in 1648 by Swedes, it fell in into disrepair. Finally, a neo-Gothic reconstruction was carried out by Josef Mocker between 1887 and 1899, giving the castle its present look.
The Golden Bull and the electors: 1356-1806 A.D.
The Golden Bull, issued by Charles IV in 1356, clarifies the new identity which the Holy Roman empire has been gradually adopting. It ends papal involvement in the election of a German king, by the simple means of denying Rome's right to approve or reject the electors' choice. In return, by a separate agreement with the pope, Charles abandons imperial claims in Italy - apart from a title to the kingdom of Lombardy, inherited from Charlemagne.
The emphasis is clear. This is now to be essentially a German empire, as reflected in a new form of the title adopted in 1452 - sacrum Romanum imperium nationis Germanicae (Holy Roman Empire of the German nation). The Golden Bull also clarifies and formalizes the process of election of a German king. The choice has traditionally been in the hands of seven electors, but their identity has varied.
The Golden Bull explicitly named the seven Kurfürsten or prince-electors who were to choose the King of the Romans, who would then usually be crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope later. The seven prince-electors were, "Three prelates were the archchancellors of Germany (Mainz), Gaul and Burgundy (Trier), and Italy (Cologne) respectively: the Bohemia cupbearer, the Palsgrave seneschal, the Saxony marshal, and the Brandenburg chamberlain. Consequently, the Bull speaks of the rex in imperatorem promovendus, the "king to be promoted emperor" — although the distinction between the two titles would become increasingly irrelevant (and virtually nonexistent after Maximilian I had renounced his coronation as Emperor in 1508).
Even though the practice of election had existed earlier and most of the dukes named in the Golden Bull were already involved in the election, and although the practice had mostly been written down in an earlier document - the Declaration of Rhense from 1338 - the Golden Bull was more precise in several ways. For one, the Dukedoms of the Electors were declared indivisible, and succession was regulated for them to ensure that the votes would never split. Secondly, the Bull prescribed that four votes would always suffice to elect the new King; as a result, three Electors could no longer block the election, and the principle of majority voting was explicitly stated for the first time in the Empire. Finally, the Bull cemented a number of privileges for the Kurfürsten to confirm their elevated role in the Empire. It is therefore also a milestone in the establishment of largely independent states in the Empire, a process to be concluded only centuries later, notably with the 1648 Peace of Westphalia.
Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor (1415 – 1493), was born in Innsbruck, he was the son of Duke Ernest "the Iron" of the Leopoldinian line of the Habsburg family, the ruler of Inner Austria, i.e. the duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, and of Ernest's wife Cymburgis of Masovia. He became duke of Inner Austria as Frederick V upon his father's death in 1424. In 1440 he was elected German king as Frederick IV and in 1452 crowned Holy Roman Emperor as Frederick III by Pope Nicholas V. In 1452, at the age of 37, he married the 18-year-old Infanta Eleanor, daughter of King Edward of Portugal, whose dowry helped him to alleviate his debts and cement his power. In 1442, Frederick allied himself with Rudolf Stüssi, burgomaster of Zürich, against the Old Swiss Confederacy in the Zürich War (Alter Zürichkrieg). In 1448, he entered into the Vienna Concordat with the Holy See, which remained in force until 1806 and regulated the relationship between the Habsburgs and the Holy See. Frederick was the last Emperor to be crowned in Rome. He opposed the reform of the Holy Roman Empire at that time, and was barely able to prevent the electors from electing another king.
From Medieval manuscript: The person responsible for Whitenizing this picture apparently didn't understand that the figures were suppose to be symmetrical in skin color too. He whitenized the living, but left the dead showing the normal variations in skin color.
Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519), the son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor and Eleanor of Portugal, was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1493 until his death: though he was never in fact crowned by the Pope, the journey to Rome always being too risky. He had ruled jointly with his father for the last ten years of his father's reign. He expanded the influence of the House of Habsburg through war and his marriage in 1477 to Mary of Burgundy, the heiress to the Duchy of Burgundy, but he also lost the Austrian territories in today's Switzerland to the Swiss Confederacy.
Margaret of Austria
Philibert II of Savoy
Philip I (1478 – 1506), known as Philip the Handsome, was the first Habsburg King of Castile. The son of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Philip inherited the greater part of the Duchy of Burgundy and the Burgundian Netherlands (as Philip IV) from his mother, Mary of Burgundy, and briefly succeeded to the Crown of Castile as the husband of Queen Joanna of Castile, who was also heiress to the Crown of Aragon. He was the first Habsburg monarch in Spain. He never inherited his father's territories, nor became Holy Roman Emperor, because he predeceased his father, but his son Emperor Charles V eventually united the Habsburg, Burgundian, Castilian, and Aragonese inheritances.
Elector Frederick III the Wise of Saxony (1463 - 1525). House House of Wettin - Father Ernst, Elector of Saxony Mother Elisabeth of Bavaria
Francesco II (or IV) Gonzaga (1466 – 1519) was the ruler of the Italian city of Mantua from 1484 until his death. He married Isabella d'Este in 1490. He was described as "short, pop-eyed, snub-nosed and exceptionally brave, and was regarded as the finest knight in Italy". Later he was rival of the Venetians, as leader of the Holy League formed by Pope Julius II against them. In that occasion he was captured by the Venetians, who held him as hostage for several months and humiliated him. Beginning in 1503, he started a long relationship with Lucrezia Borgia. On his death from syphilis contracted from prostitutes, he was succeeded by his son Federico, with Isabella acting as regent. His other son Ferrante Gonzaga originated the branch of the Counts of Guastalla.
Martin Luther (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German priest, professor of theology and iconic figure of the Protestant Reformation. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money. He confronted indulgence salesman Johann Tetzel with his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517. His refusal to retract all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the pope and condemnation as an outlaw by the Emperor.
Luther taught that salvation is not earned by good deeds but received only as a free gift of God's grace through faith in Jesus Christ as redeemer from sin. His theology challenged the authority of the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church by teaching that the Bible is the only source of divinely revealed knowledge and opposed sacerdotalism by considering all baptized Christians to be a holy priesthood. Those who identify with Luther's teachings are called Lutherans.
His translation of the Bible into the language of the people (instead of Latin) made it more accessible, causing a tremendous impact on the church and on German culture. It fostered the development of a standard version of the German language, added several principles to the art of translation, and influenced the translation into English of the King James Bible. His hymns influenced the development of singing in churches. His marriage to Katharina von Bora set a model for the practice of clerical marriage, allowing Protestant priests to marry. In his later years, while suffering from several illnesses and deteriorating health, Luther became increasingly antisemitic, writing that Jewish homes should be destroyed, their synagogues burned, money confiscated and liberty curtailed. These statements have contributed to his controversial status.
It is understood that the Black Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire viewed the corrupt Catholic church, as merely the tool and medium for their rule. Thus an attack against the Catholic church, was in fact, an attack against Black rule, since the Church was the legitimizing agent for that rule.
Thus when the powerful and influential Albert of Prussia sided with Martin Luther and the White rabble that he championed, he was in fact, declaring war on himself, and all of his own kind (Blacks).
In imperial politics Albert was fairly active. Joining the League of Torgau in 1526, he acted in unison with the Protestants, and he was among the princes who banded and plotted together to overthrow Charles V after the issue of the Augsburg Interim in May 1548. For various reasons, however, poverty and personal inclination among others, he did not take a prominent part in the military operations of this period.
Portrait of Dorothea above, from Frederiksborg Castle
Dorothea, princess of Denmark
Mother: Anna of Brandenburg (1487–1514) was a German noblewoman. Anna was the daughter of Johann Cicero, Elector of Brandenburg and Margarethe of Saxony. She was born in Berlin, Brandenburg, and died in Kiel, Holstein.
After her father's accession to the throne in 1523 a marriage was suggested to the English claimant to the throne, Duke Richard of Suffolk, who was supported by King Francis of France, but without success. In 1525, she received a proposal from the newly made Duke of Prussia. The marriage was arranged by her father's German chancellor Wolfgang von Utenhof; it was conducted 12 February 1526 and Dorothea arrived with a large entourage in Königsberg in June. Dorothea had a very good relationship with Albert and this contributed to a good and active contact between Denmark and Prussia which continued during her brother's reign and until her death. Dorothea and her spouse corresponded with her brother, the king of Denmark, and acted as his political advisors. Dorothea and Albert were present at the coronation of Christian III of Denmark in Copenhagen in 1537; they also acted as foster-parents of her nephew Duke Hans of Denmark in 1536–1542.
Albert of Prussia was the 37th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and, after converting to Lutheranism, the first duke of the Duchy of Prussia, which was the first state to adopt the Lutheran faith and Protestantism as the official state religion. Albert proved instrumental in the political spread of Protestantism in its early stage. Because Albert was a member of the Brandenburg-Ansbach branch of the House of Hohenzollern, it had been hoped that his election as Grand Master would reverse the decline of the Teutonic Knights, underway since 1410. Duke Frederick of Saxony, of the House of Wettin, had been elected for the same reason. Instead, Albert's secularization of the Prussian territories of the Order, eventually led to the inheritance of the Duchy of Prussia by the Margraviate of Brandenburg. Albert's titles (on his proclamation of 1561 in Königsberg) were: Albert the Elder, Margrave of Brandenburg in Prussia, Stettin in Pomerania, Duke of the Kashubians, and Wends, Burgrave of Nuremberg, and Count of Rügen etc.
Albert was born in Ansbach in Franconia as the third son of Frederick I, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach. His mother was Sophia, daughter of Casimir IV Jagiellon, Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland, and his wife Elisabeth of Austria. He was raised for a career in the Church and spent some time at the court of Hermann IV of Hesse, Elector of Cologne, who appointed him canon of the Cologne Cathedral. Despite being quite religious, he was also interested in mathematics and science, and sometimes is claimed to have contradicted the teachings of the Church in favour of scientific theories. His career was forwarded by the Church however and institutions of the Catholic clerics supported his early advance. Albert accompanied Emperor Maximilian I to Italy in 1508, and after his return spent some time in the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Teutonic Knights
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (Official names: Latin: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, German: Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus St. Mariens in Jerusalem), commonly called the Teutonic Order, was a German medieval military order, in modern times a purely religious Catholic order. It was formed to aid Christians on their pilgrimages to the Holy Land and to establish hospitals. Its members have commonly been known as the Teutonic Knights, since they also served as a crusading military order in the Middle Ages. The military membership was always small, with volunteers and mercenaries augmenting the force as needed. After the Reformation, the Bailiwick of Utrecht of the Order became Protestant; this branch still consists of knights, but the modern Roman Catholic order consists of Roman Catholic priests, nuns, and associates.
The order was formed at the end of the 12th century in Acre, in the Levant, the medieval Order played an important role in Outremer, controlling the port tolls of Acre. After Christian forces were defeated in the Middle East, the Order moved to Transylvania in 1211 to help defend Hungary against the Kipchaks. The Knights were expelled in 1225, after allegedly attempting to place themselves under Papal instead of Hungarian sovereignty.
In 1230, following the Golden Bull of Rimini, Grand Master Hermann von Salza and Duke Konrad I of Masovia launched the Prussian Crusade, a joint invasion of Prussia intended to Christianize the Baltic Old Prussians. The Order then created the independent Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights in the conquered territory, and subsequently conquered Livonia. The Kings of Poland accused the Order of holding lands rightfully theirs.
The Order lost its main purpose in Europe with the Christianisation of Lithuania. The Order became involved in campaigns against its Christian neighbours, the Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Novgorod Republic (after assimilating the Livonian Order). The Teutonic Knights had a strong economic base, hired mercenaries from throughout Europe to augment their feudal levies, and became a naval power in the Baltic Sea. In 1410, a Polish-Lithuanian army decisively defeated the Order and broke its military power at the Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg).
In 1515, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I made a marriage alliance with Sigismund I of Poland-Lithuania. Thereafter the Empire did not support the Order against Poland. In 1525, Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg resigned and converted to Lutheranism, becoming Duke of Prussia as a vassal of Poland. Soon after, the Order lost Livonia and its holdings in the Protestant areas of Germany.
The Order kept its considerable holdings in Catholic areas of Germany until 1809, when Napoleon Bonaparte ordered its dissolution and the Order lost its last secular holdings. The Order continued to exist as a charitable and ceremonial body. It was outlawed by Adolf Hitler in 1938, but re-established in 1945. Today it operates primarily with charitable aims in Central Europe.
The Knights wore white surcoats with a black cross. A cross pattée was sometimes used as their coat of arms; this image was later used for military decoration and insignia by the Kingdom of Prussia and Germany as the Iron Cross and Pour le Mérite. The motto of the Order was:"Helfen, Wehren, Heilen" ("Help, Defend, Heal")
The Marienburg Castle in Malbork is by area the largest castle in the world. It was built in Prussia by the Teutonic Knights, in a form of an Ordensburg fortress. The Order named it Marienburg (Mary's Castle). The town which grew around it was also named Marienburg. The castle is a classic example of a medieval fortress, and on its completion in 1406 was the world's largest brick castle. After WW II, it was ceded to Poland.
John Elector of Saxony (1468 - 1532) Brother and Successor of Frederick III the Wise of Saxony
House House of Wettin - Father Ernst, Elector of Saxony. Mother Elisabeth of Bavaria
By marrying his son Philip the Handsome to the future Queen Joanna of Castile in 1498, Maximilian established the Habsburg dynasty in Spain and allowed his grandson Charles to hold the throne of both León-Castile and Aragon, thus making him the first de jure King of Spain. Philip having predeceased his father, Charles succeeded his grandfather Maximilian as Holy Roman Emperor in 1519, and thus ruled both the Holy Roman Empire and the Spanish Empire simultaneously.
Charles V (1500 – 1558) was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I and his son Philip II in 1556. As the heir of three of Europe's leading dynasties—the House of Habsburg of the Habsburg Monarchy; the House of Valois-Burgundy of the Burgundian Netherlands; and the House of Trastámara of the Crowns of Castile & Aragon—he ruled over extensive domains in Central, Western, and Southern Europe; and the Spanish colonies in North, Central, and South America, the Caribbean, and Asia.
|Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (1500–1558). Charles was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I and his son Philip II in 1556.
Charles was the eldest son of Philip I of Castile (known as Philip the Handsome - Sarcastic: the famous Prognathic "Habsburg Jaw" is believed to have begun with Philip), and Joanna of Castile (Joanna the Mad). As the heir of three of Europe's leading dynasties— the House of Habsburg of the Habsburg Monarchy; the House of Valois-Burgundy of the Burgundian Netherlands; and the House of Trastámara of the Crowns of Castile and Aragon: He ruled over extensive domains in Central, Western, and Southern Europe; and the Spanish colonies in the Americas and Asia. As Charles was the first king to rule Castile-León and Aragon simultaneously in his own right, he became the first King of Spain. In 1519, Charles became Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria. From that point forward spanned his empire nearly four million square kilometers across Europe, the Far East, and the Americas.
Much of Charles' reign was devoted to the Italian Wars against France which, although enormously expensive, were militarily successful. Charles' forces re-captured both Milan and Franche-Comté from France after the decisive Habsburg victory at the Battle of Pavia in 1525, which pushed Francis to form the Franco-Ottoman alliance. Charles' rival Suleiman the Magnificent conquered the central part of the Hungarian Kingdom in 1526 after defeating the Christians at the Battle of Mohács. However, the Ottoman advance was halted after they failed to capture Vienna in 1529.
Aside from this, Charles is best known for his role in opposing the Protestant Reformation. Several German princes abandoned the Catholic Church and formed the Schmalkaldic League in order to challenge Charles' authority with military force. Unwilling to allow the same religious wars to come to his other domains, Charles pushed for the convocation of the Council of Trent, which began the Counter-Reformation. The Society of Jesus was established by St. Ignacio de Loyola during Charles' reign in order to peacefully and intellectually combat Protestantism, and continental Spain was spared from religious conflict largely by Charles' nonviolent measures.
In the New World, Charles oversaw the Spanish colonization of the Americas, including the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire and the Inca Empire. Charles provided 5 ships to Ferdinand Magellan whose voyage - the first circumnavigation of the Earth - laid the foundation for the Pacific oceanic empire of Spain and began Spanish colonization of the Philippines.
Though always at war, Charles was a lover of peace. "Not greedy of territory", wrote Marcantonio Contarini in 1536, "but most greedy of peace and quiet." Charles retired in 1556. The Habsburg Monarchy passed to Charles' younger brother Ferdinand, whereas the Spanish Empire was inherited by his son Philip II. The two empires would remain allies until the 18th century.
Isabella of Portugal
Isabella of Portugal (1503–1539) was Holy Roman Empress, Queen of Germany, Spain, Naples and Sicily and Duchess of Burgundy as the spouse of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. She was the daughter of Manuel I of Portugal and Maria of Aragon. She served as regent of Spain during the absence of her spouse for long periods.
Isabella was the second child and eldest daughter of King Manuel I of Portugal and his second spouse, Infanta Maria of Castile and Aragon. She was named after her maternal grandmother, Isabella I of Castile, and her aunt Isabella, Princess of Asturias, who had been her father's first spouse.
Through her father, she was a granddaughter of Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu (the second son of King Edward of Portugal and brother of King Afonso V of Portugal) and Infanta Beatrice, the daughter of Infante John, Lord of Reguengos (brother of King Edward). Through her mother she was a granddaughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon.
Isabella was second-in-line to the throne until the birth of her brother Louis in 1505. However, as the oldest daughter of Manuel I of Portugal, She married her first cousin, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, the son of Joanna of Castile and Philip the Handsome, Duke of Burgundy, who as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Spain, Archduke of the Habsburg dominions, titular Duke of Burgundy, and ruler of the Netherlands and the Spanish empire in the Americas and the Mediterranean and Italy was one of the most powerful men of his time.
Children of Charles V and Isabella of Portugal
Philip II, King of Spain
Philip I of Castile
Philip I (22 July 1478 – 25 September 1506), known as Philip the Handsome (Sarcastic - the famous Prognathic "Hasburg Jaw" is believed to have begun with Philip), was the first member of the house of Habsburg to be King of Castile. The son of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Philip inherited the greater part of the Duchy of Burgundy and the Burgundian Netherlands (as Philip IV) from his mother, Mary of Burgundy, and briefly succeeded to the Crown of Castile as the husband of Queen Joanna of Castile, who was also heiress-presumptive to the Crown of Aragon. He was the first Habsburg monarch in Spain. He never inherited his father's territories, nor became Holy Roman Emperor, because he predeceased his father, but his son Emperor Charles V eventually united the Habsburg, Burgundian, Castilian, and Aragonese inheritances.
Joanna of Castile
Joanna (1479–1555) was born in Toledo, the capital of the Kingdom of Castile. She was the third child and second daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon of the royal House of Trastámara. Joanna, known as Joanna the Mad, was the first queen regnant to reign over both the Kingdoms of Castile (1504–55) and of Aragon (1516–55), a union which evolved into modern Spain. Besides the kingdoms of Spain, she also ruled the kingdoms of Sardinia, Sicily, and Naples in Italy; a vast colonial empire in the Americas and the Philippines; and the prosperous Burgundian Netherlands, initiating Spanish interests there. She was the last monarch of the House of Trastámara and her marriage to Philip the Handsome initiated the rule of the Habsburgs in Spain. However, throughout her long reign, she was under the regency of her husband, father, inquisitor, or son and she was long confined to a nunnery for reasons of mental illness.
Children of Philip I of Castile and Joanna of Castile
Eleanor, Queen of Portugal and France
Ferdinand II of Aragon
Known as Ferdinand the Catholic (1452–1516) was King of Aragon (as Ferdinand II), Sicily, Naples (as Ferdinand III), Majorca, Valencia, Sardinia, and Navarre, Count of Barcelona, jure uxoris King of Castile (1474–1504, as Ferdinand V, in right of his wife, Isabella I) and then regent of that country also from 1508 to his death, in the name of his reportedly mentally unstable daughter Joanna.
Ferdinand was born in Sos del Rey Católico, Aragon, as the son of John II of Aragon (whose family was a cadet branch of the House of Trastámara) by his second wife, Juana Enríquez. He married Infanta Isabella, the half-sister and heiress of Henry IV of Castile, on 19 October 1469 in Valladolid. Isabella also belonged to the royal House of Trastámara, and the two were second cousins by descent from John I of Castile. They were married with a clear prenuptial agreement on sharing power, and under the joint motto "tanto monta, monta tanto". He became jure uxoris King of Castile when Isabella succeeded her deceased brother in 1474 to be crowned as Queen Isabella I of Castile. The two young monarchs were initially obliged to fight a civil war against Joan of Castile (also known as Juana la Beltraneja), the purported daughter of Henry IV, and were swiftly successful. When Ferdinand succeeded his father as King of Aragon in 1479, the Crown of Castile and the various territories of the Crown of Aragon were united in a personal union creating for the first time since the 8th century a single political unit referred to as España (Spain), the root of which is the ancient name Hispania. The various states were not formally administered as a single unit, but as separate political units under the same Crown. (The legal merging of Aragon and Castile into a single Spain occurred under Philip V in 1707-1715.)
Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I (1451–1504), nicknamed the Catholic, was Queen of Castile and León. She and her husband, Ferdinand II of Aragon, brought stability to the kingdoms that became the basis for the unification of Spain. Later the two laid the foundations for the political unification of Spain under their grandson, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. After a struggle to claim her right to the throne, she reorganized the governmental system, brought the crime rate to the lowest it had been in years, and pulled the kingdom out of the enormous debt her brother had left behind. Her reforms and those she made with her husband had an influence that extended well beyond the borders of their united kingdoms. Isabella and Ferdinand are known for completing the Reconquista, ordering conversion or exile of their Muslim and Jewish subjects and financing Christopher Columbus' 1492 voyage that led to the opening of the "New World".
Children of Ferdinand II and Isabella I
Isabella, Queen of Portugal
Catharine of Aragon, Queen of England (1485–1536): Was the Spaniard Queen consort of England as the first wife of King Henry VIII of England and Princess of Wales as the wife of first husband Arthur, Prince of Wales. In 1507, she also held the position of Ambassador for the Spanish Court in England when her father found himself without one, becoming the first female ambassador in European history. For six months, she served as regent of England while Henry VIII was in France. During that time the English won the Battle of Flodden, an event in which Catherine played an important part.
Catharine's marriage to Henry VIII was annulled in 1533.
Spanish Book on Carlos Quinto (Charles V)
Henry VIII (left) with Charles V (right) and Pope Leo X (center), circa 1520
Medal of Charles Quint
Emperor Charles V seated (painting attributed to Titian, 1548)
The race of the Inca, as well as the Holy Roman Emperors, who later came to rule them during the reign of Charles V, has long been in contention. Two old paintings with provenance in Peru, answers both questions definitively.
Click here for a blowup of the entire painting
Click here for a blowup of the middle part of the painting
Said to be Christophle le More (get it "Moor"), entourage of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Painted by the Dutch painter Jan Mostaert circa 1520. It is said to be the oldest painting of a Black man in Europe. It is titled dismissively as “Portrait of an African” (As always, degenerate Albinos seek to portray all Blacks, when not as Slaves or Servants, then as Africans). In this way, they preclude all possibilities of them being native Europeans.
The painting also tells us something about the political situation in Europe after 1800. We find that at the time the painting was created (circa 1800); the Spanish still depicted Jesus as a Black man. In a later painting of Inca kings, the Holy Roman Emperor, and Spanish kings in the Catedral de Lima, in Lima Peru: We find a Whitenized version, of the painting in the Larco museum in Lima Peru. This sets the time, for the Spanish at least, as circa 1800, when Europeans began "Writing-Blacks-out-of-History."
Click here for a blowup of the false painting in the Catedral de Lima, in Lima Peru
We know that during the "Thirty Years Wars" and subsequent wars (mid 1600s), Black Catholics were defeated by the forces of the insurgent Albino Protestants. (The Albinos tell us that there were Black nobles who were supporters of the Protestants - that may not be true). In investigating what sufficiently great occurrence could have taken place, at about the time the painting was made, to create a climate in Europe so hateful of Black people, that there would be a mass movement to "Write-Blacks-out-of-History." We see only one thing - the Rise of Napoleon!
In the Spanish territories, the change-over from a Black Jesus, to an Albino Jesus, coincides with the kingship in Spain of Napoleons brother Joseph.
One should never us Wiki as a primary source – it is often inaccurate, and on racial matters, often lies in support of the Albino falsifications of history. But it does provide a general view of the times of Napoleon. Of particular interest is that Napoleons father, Carlo Buonaparte, in his portrait, appears to have been a Mulatto.
Link to the Study here: http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmbr/article/view/10609/
Additionally, in contrast to his “supposed” portrait at the Tuileries, Napoleons deathbed portrait depicts a dark man. The Tuileries portrait then, would be in keeping with the Albinos determination to make everyone of historical significance – Albino.
Though Napoleons Black blood does not preclude his starting the mass Albino movement to write Blacks out-of-History. Who knows what a mulatto in a state of “racial confusion” might be capable of.
But what it does do - is open the possibility that Napoleons domination of Europe was the “Last Straw” for the Albinos, after which, they were resolved to remove all vestiges of Blacks, and Black influence from Europe. In which case, the falsifications didn’t happen during his reign, they occurred as a “Result” of his reign. And the reports of Napoleons attempt to destroy the Sphinx by having his cannoneers use it’s face for target practice, is just another Albino lie – The Turks might well have been the culprits.
Click here for a Wiki on Napoleon
Click here for a Wiki on the French Wars of Religion and the conflict with the Habsburgs
There is the possibility that perhaps Napoleon saw himself as a "Man of color" fighting the Albino forces which had captured, and now controlled Europe.
Might then, the real purpose of his Egyptian escapade (1798), been to secure a source of Black troops?
Certain quotes attributed to him, seems to suggest a certain empathy for the wretched condition of Blacks in Egypt.
Quote: (Chandler, 220) During the day, the troops distributed leaflets containing Napoleon's proclamation to the people of Egypt. In it, he proclaims the coming of the French to be the will of Allah, to restore their rights and free them from the tyranny of the Marmelukes. (Bourrienne, 71) Also it declares, "What wisdom, what talents, what virtues distinguish the Marmelukes, so that they have exclusive possession of everything that makes life sweet and enjoyable? Is there a fine piece of land? It belongs to the Marmelukes. Is there a beautiful slave girl, a fine horse, a handsome house? Those things too belong to the Marmelukes. If Egypt is their farm, let them show us the lease that God gave them on it!" Of course this was but so much hot air, all Republican spirit aside. Bonaparte was pandering to the fellahin to rally around him, or at least to tolerate his presence in their country.
Quote: The next morning, the Sheiks and Imams of Cairo surrendered the city, and on July 24th accompanied by martial music from the band, Bonaparte entered the capital city of Egypt. Cairo, disappointed Napoleon, as had Alexandria before it. He wrote to the directory, "It is difficult to find a land more fertile and a people more impoverished, ignorant and degraded." He felt the 300,000 people of Cairo were the, "most wretched population in the world." (Castelot, 108-109)
It is believed that it was during the rule of the Abbasid caliphs (circa 750), that the Arabs first started importing Turks as Slave Soldiers (Mamluks), though it could be earlier. By the time of Napoleon, the Turks had long since overthrown and banished the Arabs.
If we see Napoleon as a self identified "Man of Color": Can we then give credence to an investigation done by Albinos, concerning the original intent, and look, of the Statue of Liberty?
Click here for a page on contemporary's of Charles V
As evidenced by Benjamin Franklin's essay of 1751, by that time, Britain had rid itself of most of it's native Blacks, and the British were then dreaming of the whole of Europe and North America, being "Pure Albino". Later, that dream was realized when the Albinos of continental Europe - no doubt with British help, killed-off or enslaved and expelled to North America and the Caribbean, all of it's "Swarthy's" as Franklin called them. British ships were used to transport them across the Atlantic - see the next page. (The entire essay is on the next page also).
Title: America as a Land of Opportunity
Author: Benjamin Franklin
Type of document: essay
Which leads me to add one Remark: That the Number of purely white People in the World is proportionably very small. All Africa is black or tawny. Asia chiefly tawny. America (exclusive of the new Comers) wholly so. And in Europe, the Spaniards, Italians, French, Russians and Swedes, are generally of what we call a swarthy Complexion; as are the Germans also, the Saxons only excepted, who with the English, make the principal Body of White People on the Face of the Earth. I could wish their Numbers were increased. And while we are, as I may call it, Scouring our Planet, by clearing America of Woods, and so making this Side of our Globe reflect a brighter Light to the Eyes of Inhabitants in mars or Venus, why should we in the Sight of Superior Beings, darken its People? why increase the Sons of Africa, by Planting them in America, where we have so fair an Opportunity, by excluding all Blacks and Tawneys, of increasing the lovely White and Red? But perhaps I am partial to the complexion of my Country, for such Kind of Partiality is natural to Mankind.
Though Hitler preached Albino "Purity": He and all of his henchmen were actually dark Europeans. It seems a safe assumption that Hitler's henchmen were dark for the same reason that he was dark. He himself, derived from an African of the E1b1b haplogroup. (Ashkenazi Jews are of course Turkic Khazars, whatever E1b1b they might have, is purely the result of recent admixture).
Click here for the newstory from the Daily Mail
Click here for the newstory from Bloomberg
Constant allies of the Medici during the Renaissance, the Pucci were among the families Cosimo de'Medici called upon as a means of indirectly pursuing his own political interests - trusted Medici allies from the Pucci family included Puccio Pucci, who provided Cosimo with money to improve his living conditions in prison whilst Cosimo was imprisoned prior to being exiled. In the early 16th century the Pucci family's prestige rose yet higher, with it producing three cardinals (Roberto, Lorenzo and Antonio Pucci) within a few decades of each other and continuing to be trusted figures in the Medici's ducal and then grand-ducal courts.
When Emperor Charles V sacked Rome in 1527, the Florentines took advantage of the turmoil in Italy to reinstall the Republic; both Alessandro and Ippolito fled, along with the rest of the Medici and their main supporters, including the Pope's regent, Cardinal Silvio Passerini, with the exception of the eight-year-old Caterina de' Medici, who was left behind. Michelangelo, then occupied in creating a funerary chapel for the Medici, initially took charge of building fortifications around Florence in support of the Republic; he later temporarily fled the city. Clement eventually made his peace with the Emperor, and with the support of Imperial troops, the Republic was overwhelmed after a lengthy siege, and the Medici were restored to power in the summer of 1530. Clement assigned Florence to nineteen-year-old Alessandro, who had been made a duke, an appointment that was purchased from Charles. He arrived in Florence to take up his rule on July 5, 1531, and was made hereditary Duke of Florence 9 months later by the Emperor (for Tuscany lay outside the Papal States), thereby signalling the end of the Republic (Hibbert 1999: 250–252; and Schevill 1936: 482, 513–514).
King Philip II of Spain (1527 – 1598)
Philip was born in Valladolid, the son of Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, and his consort, Isabella of Portugal. During his reign, Spain was the foremost Western European power. Under his rule, Spain reached the height of its influence and power, directing explorations all around the world and settling the colonization of territories in all the known continents. In 1554 he married Queen Mary I of England.
Mary I (1516 – 1558) was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.
She was the only surviving child born of the ill-fated marriage of Henry VIII and his first wife Catherine of Aragon. Her younger half-brother, Edward VI, succeeded Henry in 1547. By 1553, Edward was mortally ill and because of religious differences between them, he attempted to remove Mary from the line of succession. On his death, their cousin Lady Jane Grey was at first proclaimed queen. Mary assembled a force in East Anglia, and successfully deposed Jane, who was ultimately beheaded. In 1554, Mary married Philip of Spain, and as a result became queen consort of Habsburg Spain on his accession in 1556.
As the fourth crowned monarch of the Tudor dynasty, Mary is remembered for her restoration of Roman Catholicism after the short-lived Protestant reign of her brother. During her five year reign, she had over 280 religious dissenters burned at the stake in the Marian Persecutions. Her Protestant opponents gave her the sobriquet of "Bloody Mary". Her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed after her death in 1558 by her successor and younger half-sister, Elizabeth I.
Ferdinand I (1503 – 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death. Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. The key events during his reign were the contest with the Ottoman Empire, whose great advance into Central Europe began in the 1520s, and the Protestant Reformation, which resulted in several wars of religion.
Maximilian II (1527 – 1576) Holy Roman Emperor, his Father as Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Mother Anna of Bohemia and Hungary, Queen Maria of Burgundy. Maria was born in Madrid to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (elect at the time) and King of Spain, and Isabella of Portugal.
The group of seven is now established as three archbishops (of Mainz, Cologne and Trier) and four hereditary lay rulers (the count palatine of the Rhine, the duke of Saxony, the margrave of Brandenburg and the king of Bohemia). This group of seven electors remains unchanged until the 17th century, when an eighth vote is added (the newcomer to the list is the duke of Bavaria). In 1708 the ruler of Hanover becomes a ninth elector. But by this time the idea of election is as meaningless as in any rotten borough. The office of Holy Roman Emperor has become a hereditary attachment of one family.
Matthias of Austria (1557 – 1619) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1612, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1608 (as Matthias II) and King of Bohemia from 1611. Matthias was born in the Austrian capital of Vienna to Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria of Spain. Matthias married Archduchess Anna of Austria, daughter of his uncle Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria, whose successor in Austria Matthias became in 1595. Their marriage did not produce surviving children.
In 1578, Matthias was invited to the Netherlands by the States-General of the rebellious provinces, who offered him the position of Governor-General. Matthias accepted the appointment, although the position was not recognized by his uncle, Philip II of Spain, the hereditary ruler of the provinces. Matthias nonetheless remained as titular governor for the rebels until they deposed Philip II and declared full independence in 1581, at which point Matthias returned home to Austria.
In 1593 he was appointed governor of Austria by his brother, Emperor Rudolf II. He formed a close association there with the Bishop of Vienna, Melchior Klesl, who later became his chief adviser. In 1605 Matthias forced the ailing emperor to allow him to deal with the Hungarian Protestant rebels. The result was the Peace of Vienna of 1606, which guaranteed religious freedom in Hungary and guaranteed the right of Transylvanians to elect their own independent princes in the future. In the same year Matthias was recognized as head of the House of Habsburg and as the future Holy Roman Emperor, as a result of Rudolf's illness. Allying himself with the estates of Hungary, Austria, and Moravia, Matthias forced his brother to yield rule of these lands to him in 1608; Rudolf later ceded Bohemia in 1611. Matthias's army then held Rudolf prisoner in his castle in Prague until 1611, when Rudolf was forced to cede the crown of Bohemia to his brother.
After Matthias's accession as Holy Roman Emperor, his policy was dominated by Klesl, who hoped to bring about a compromise between Catholic and Protestant states within the Holy Roman Empire in order to strengthen it. Matthias had already been forced to grant religious concessions to Protestants in Austria and Moravia, as well as in Hungary, when he had allied with them against his brother Rudolf. Matthias imprisoned Georg Keglević who was the Commander-in-chief, General, Vice-Ban of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia, and since 1602 Baron in Transylvania, but soon left him free again. At that time, the Principality of Transylvania was fully autonomous, but only a semi-independent state under the nominal suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire.
Matthias's conciliatory policies were opposed by the more intransigent Catholic Habsburgs, particularly Matthias's brother Archduke Maximilian, who hoped to secure the succession for the inflexible Catholic Archduke Ferdinand (later Emperor Ferdinand II). The start of the Bohemian Protestant revolt in 1618 provoked Maximilian to imprison Klesl and revise his policies. Matthias, old and ailing, was unable to prevent a takeover by Maximilian's faction. Ferdinand, who had already been crowned King of Bohemia (1617) and of Hungary (1618), succeeded Matthias as Holy Roman Emperor. Matthias died in Vienna in 1619
For those so silly as to accept the White mans explanation of assimilation: it is easily proven false. India was the first place to suffer invasion by the Albinos (circa 1,500 B.C.). They have been assimilating each other for about 3,500 years. Europe's invasion by the Albinos occurred about 300 years later (circa 1,200 B.C.), by the people that we incorrectly call Hellenes and Latin's (those names were in fact for native Blacks): those first Albinos were indeed assimilated over the next thousand-plus years. But the next wave of Central Asian Albinos: the Germanics, Slav's, and Turks, was massive - they were far too many, and could not be assimilated by Blacks, thus resulting in racial conflict.
<<<<<<< When Albinos like the people above, mate with Blacks like this man:
The result is a Mulatto like this woman >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
So then, we are asked to believe that after only a few hundred years, the White Albinos absorbed the entire Black population of Europe? That is an incredibly stupid lie which defies logic.
Ferdinand III (1608 – 1657) was Holy Roman Emperor from 15 February 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria. His father was Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Mother Maria Anna of Bavaria. Ferdinand was born in Graz, the eldest son of Emperor Ferdinand II of Habsburg and his first wife, Maria Anna of Bavaria. Educated by the Jesuits, he became King of Hungary in 1625, King of Bohemia in 1627 and Archduke of Austria in 1621. In 1627 Ferdinand enhanced his authority and set an important legal and military precedent by issuing a Revised Land Ordinance that deprived the Bohemian estates of their right to raise soldiers, reserving that power solely for the monarch.
Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Wallenstein (1583 – 1634 - actually von Waldstein), was a Bohemian soldier and politician who offered his services, and an army of 30,000 to 100,000 men during the Danish period (1625–29) of the Thirty Years' War to the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II. He became the supreme commander of the armies of the Habsburg Monarchy and one of the major figures of the Thirty Years' War.
A successful generalissimo who had made himself ruler of the lands of the Duchy of Friedland in northern Bohemia, Wallenstein found himself released from service in 1630 after Ferdinand grew wary of his ambition. Several Protestant victories over Catholic armies induced Ferdinand to recall Wallenstein, who again turned the war in favor of the Imperial cause. But dissatisfied with the Emperor's treatment of him, Wallenstein considered allying with the Protestants. However, Ferdinand had the general assassinated at Eger (Cheb) in Egerland by one of the army's officials, Walter Devereux.
Following the death of Wallenstein (who had previously denied him the overall military command of the Catholic side), in 1634 he was made titular head of the Imperial Army, and later that year, joined with his cousin the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand, they being nominally responsible of the capture of Donauwörth and Regensburg, and of the defeat of the Swedes at the Battle of Nördlingen.
He hoped to be able to make peace soon with France and Sweden, but the war dragged on for another 11 years, finally coming to an end with the Peace of Westphalia (Treaty of Münster with France, Treaty of Osnabrück with Sweden) in 1648: they both negotiated by his envoy Maximilian von und zu Trauttmansdorff, a diplomat who had been made a count in 1623 by his father Ferdinand II. During the last period of the war in 1644, Ferdinand III gave all rulers of German states the right to conduct their own foreign policy (ius belli ac pacis). This way the emperor was trying to gain more allies in the negotiations with France and Sweden. This very edict contributed to the gradual erosion of the imperial authority in the Holy Roman Empire. After 1648 the emperor was engaged in carrying out the terms of the treaty and ridding Germany of the foreign soldiery. In 1656 he sent an army into Italy to assist Spain in her struggle with France, and he had just concluded an alliance with Poland to check the aggressions of Charles X of Sweden when he died on 2 April 1657.
Note: France, the home of the Franks - the originators of the Black Holy Roman Empire, was now at war with that very same Empire. This is as a result of the The Hundred Years' War, which was a series of separate wars waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet in Britain, also known as the House of Anjou, for the French throne. These wars left half of Frances population dead. The Albinos had no trouble taking over after that.
The Thirty Years War is one of the great conflicts of early modern European history. The Thirty Years War consisted of a series of declared and undeclared wars which raged through the years 1618-1648 throughout central Europe. During the Thirty Years War the opponents were, on the one hand, the House of Austria: the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperors Ferdinand II and Ferdinand III together with their Spanish cousin Philip IV. During the long course of the Thirty Years War the Habsburgs were opposed by various international opponents of House of Austria: the Danish, Dutch and, above all, France and Sweden.
In addition to its international dimensions the Thirty Years War was a German civil war. The principalities which made up Germany took up arms for or against the Habsburgs or, most commonly, both at different times during the war’s 30 years. The Thirty Years War was also, at least in part, a religious war among Catholics, Lutherans and Calvinists. Ferdinand II and, to a lesser degree, his primary ally Maximillian I represented the re-Catholicizing zeal of the Jesuit Counter-reformation, while Frederick V of the Palatinate represented the equally militant forces of Calvinism.
Foreign powers - The French, English and Dutch formed a league to oppose the Habsburgs. They found their champion in Christian IV of Denmark, who also had extensive possessions in northern Germany. Christian invaded, but was crushingly defeated by the army of the Catholic League and a new Imperial force under the enigmatic Bohemian condottiere Wallenstein. Emboldened by victory, the Emperor issued the Edict of Restitution, requiring the return of all lands expropriated from the Roman church since the 1550’s
Faced with increasing pressure from the Habsburgs, the Bohemians rose in revolt. They deposed the Habsburgs and crowned Frederick V of the Palatinate as their King. Initially, the revolt seemed destined for success. However, Ferdinand II struck back, subsidized by his Spanish relatives and in alliance with the Catholic League and with Lutheran Saxony. The Bohemians were utterly defeated near Prague at the White Mountain. Simultaneously the Spanish had invaded and conquered the Lower Palatinate, Frederick’s territories on the Rhine. This enabled the Spanish to secure the land route from their territories in Northern Italy to their lands in modern-day Belgium. Frederick V of the Palatinate and other Protestant rulers sought to regain the Rhenish Palatinate from the Spanish and the Catholic League. These efforts were supported by the Dutch who had been battling the Spaniards for independence since 1568. A strong Spanish presence on the Rhine was a strategic peril they could not ignore.
The Peace of Westphalia
Over the last four years of the war, the parties were actively negotiating at Osnabrück and Münster in Westphalia. On 24 October, 1648 the Peace of Westphalia was signed, ending the Thirty Years War. The Swedes received a large cash indemnity and control over western Pomerania, Bremen and Verden. The French recieved rights (nature unclear) over Alsace. The control of the Emperor over the German territorial rulers was reduced to nothing. Within the German portion of the Empire, private exercise of non-conforming religion was permitted and the organs of government were rendered religiously neutral. Lands secularized by the Protestants in 1624 were generally allowed to remain so. However, in the Habsburg territories of Bohemia and Austria the Emperor was given a nearly free hand to re-impose Catholicism.
So great was the devastation brought about by the war that estimates put the reduction of population in the German states at about 25% to 40%. Some regions were affected much more than others. For example, Württemberg lost three-quarters of its population during the war. In the territory of Brandenburg, the losses had amounted to half, while in some areas an estimated two-thirds of the population died. The male population of the German states was reduced by almost half. The population of the Czech lands declined by a third due to war, disease, famine and the expulsion of Protestant Czechs. Much of the destruction of civilian lives and property was caused by the cruelty and greed of mercenary soldiers, many of whom were rich commanders and poor soldiers. Villages were especially easy prey to the marauding armies. Those that survived, like the small village of Drais near Mainz, would take almost a hundred years to recover. The Swedish armies alone may have destroyed up to 2,000 castles, 18,000 villages and 1,500 towns in Germany, one-third of all German towns. The war caused serious dislocations to both the economies and populations of central Europe, but may have done no more than seriously exacerbate changes that had begun earlier.
Beggar, probably war veteran circa 1622, by Jacques Callot
Pestilence of several kinds raged among combatants and civilians in Germany and surrounding lands from 1618 to 1648. Many features of the war spread disease. These included troop movements, the influx of soldiers from foreign countries, and the shifting locations of battle fronts. In addition, the displacement of civilian populations and the overcrowding of refugees into cities led to both disease and famine. Information about numerous epidemics is generally found in local chronicles, such as parish registers and tax records, that are often incomplete and may be exaggerated. The chronicles do show that epidemic disease was not a condition exclusive to war time, but was present in many parts of Germany for several decades prior to 1618.
However, when the Danish and Imperial armies met in Saxony and Thuringia during 1625 and 1626, disease and infection in local communities increased. Local chronicles repeatedly referred to "head disease", "Hungarian disease", and a "spotted" disease identified as typhus. After the Mantuan War, between France and the Habsburgs in Italy, the northern half of the Italian peninsula was in the throes of a bubonic plague epidemic. During the unsuccessful siege of Nuremberg, in 1632, civilians and soldiers in both the Swedish and Imperial armies succumbed to typhus and scurvy. Two years later, as the Imperial army pursued the defeated Swedes into southwest Germany, deaths from epidemics were high along the Rhine River. Bubonic plague continued to be a factor in the war. Beginning in 1634, Dresden, Munich, and smaller German communities such as Oberammergau recorded large numbers of plague casualties. In the last decades of the war, both typhus and dysentery had become endemic in Germany.
We view the Thirty Years Wars as the defining Wars in the Albinos efforts to remove Blacks from Europe and end Black Hegemony in Europe. That because by this time, the Americas provided a place to send civilian survivors and prisoners of war. But there were many other wars in Europe which directly, or indirectly, furthered the Albino cause of Black eradication.
1066 Norman Conquest
1562 - 1563 First War of Religion
1602 - 1612 Turkish-Persian War
1639 First Bishops' War
1665 - 1667 Second Anglo-Dutch War preceded by the capture of New Amsterdam, renamed New York City
1722 - 1723 Russo-Persian War 1722-1723
1778 - 1783 Anglo-French War
Leopold I (1640 – 1705), Holy Roman Emperor, King of Germany and Hungary. He was the second son of Emperor Ferdinand III and his first wife Maria Ana of Austria. His maternal grandparents were Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria. He was also a first cousin of his rival, Louis XIV of France.
Portraits of Leopold I
Leopold became heir apparent on 9 July 1654 with the death of his elder brother Ferdinand IV, and reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1658 to 1705. Leopold's reign was marked by military successes against the Ottoman Empire in the Great Turkish War through his greatest general Prince Eugene of Savoy. By the end of the war, the Habsburg Monarchy had annexed Transylvania and much of Hungary.
Leopold is also known for his conflicts against France through the "Nine Years" War and the War of Spanish Succession. In the latter, he had hoped to enforce the Second Partition Treaty, which assigned the throne of the Kingdom of Spain to his son the Archduke Charles. Leopold managed the war extremely well, and the Habsburg Monarchy scored decisive victories at Schellenberg and Blenheim. His death in 1705 left the throne to his eldest son Joseph.
The Nine Years War
The Nine Years' War (1688–97) – often called the War of the Grand Alliance, the War of the Palatine Succession, or the War of the League of Augsburg – was a major war of the late 17th century fought between King Louis XIV of France, and a European-wide coalition, the Grand Alliance, led by the Anglo-Dutch Stadtholder King William III, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, King Charles II of Spain, Victor Amadeus II of Savoy, and the major and minor princes of the Holy Roman Empire. The Nine Years' War was fought primarily on mainland Europe and its surrounding waters, but it also encompassed a theatre in Ireland, where William III and James II struggled for control of the British Isles, and a minor campaign (King William's War) between French and English settlers and their Indian allies in colonial North America.
The War of the Spanish Succession
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was fought among several European powers, including a divided Spain, over the possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France under one Bourbon monarch. As France and Spain were among the most powerful states of Europe, such a unification would have drastically altered the European balance of power. The war was fought primarily by forces supporting the unification, the Spanish loyal to Philip V of France and the Electorate of Bavaria, against those opposing unification, the Spanish loyal to Archduke Charles, the Holy Roman Empire, Great Britain, the Dutch Republic, Portugal and the Duchy of Savoy. The forces were known as the Two Crowns and Grand Alliance, respectively.
Francesco Farnese, Duke of Parma (1678 – 1727). The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul III's illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, it was centered on the city of Parma. Francesco reigned as the seventh and penultimate Farnese Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1694 until his death. He married Dorothea Sophia of the Palatinate, his brother Odoardo's widow, to avoid the return of her dowry. Francesco curtailed court expenditure, enormous under his father and predecessor, Ranuccio II, while preventing the occupation of his Duchy of Parma, nominally a Papal fief, during the War of the Spanish Succession.
In 1700, upon the death of Charles II of Spain without an ostensible heir, the War of the Spanish Succession broke out between France and Austria. Duke Francesco, anxious to keep foreign troops out of his duchy, adopted a policy of neutrality; Prince Eugene of Savoy occupied parts of the Farnese territories however. When Francesco complained to Prince Eugene's employer, the Austrian Emperor Leopold I of this, the Emperor replied that he would be duly compensated at a later date. Towards the end of the war, Austria, now ruled by Leopold's son Joseph I, disregarded its promise of reparations and, as part of a concordat with the Catholic church, declared Parma its fief.
Ferdinand VI (1713 – 1759), was King of Spain from 9 July 1746 until his death. He was the fourth son of the previous monarch Philip V and his first wife Maria Luisa of Savoy. Ferdinand was the third member of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty. His father's second wife, Elisabeth of Parma, was a domineering woman, who had no affection except for her own children, and who looked upon her stepson as an obstacle to their fortunes. The hypochondria of his father left Elisabeth mistress of the palace. Ferdinand was married in 1729 to Infanta Barbara of Portugal, daughter of John V of Portugal and Mary Anne of Austria.
When he came to the throne, Spain found itself in the War of the Austrian Succession which ended without any benefit to Spain. He started his reign by eliminating the influence of his fathers widow, Queen Elisabeth of Parma, and her group of Italian courtiers. As king he followed a steady policy of neutrality in the conflict between France and Britain, and refused to be tempted by the offers of either into declaring war on the other.
Joseph I (1678 – 1711) Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia, King of Hungary, King of the Romans was the elder son of Emperor Leopold I and his third wife, Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg. In 1699, he married Princess Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg, daughter of John Frederick, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. He succeeded his father as emperor in 1705. It was his good fortune to govern the Austrian dominions and to be head of the Empire, during the years in which his trusted general, Prince Eugene of Savoy, either acting alone in Italy or with the Duke of Marlborough in Germany and Flanders, was beating the armies of Louis XIV of France. During the whole of his reign, Hungary was disturbed by the conflict with Francis Rákóczi II, who eventually took refuge in the Ottoman Empire. The emperor reversed many of the authoritative measures of his father, thus helping to placate opponents. He began attempts to settle the question of the Austrian inheritance by a pragmatic sanction, which was continued by his brother Charles VI. Joseph died in Vienna from smallpox.
Charles VI (1685 – 1740) was the penultimate Habsburg sovereign of the Habsburg Empire. He succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia, Hungary and Croatia, Archduke of Austria, etc. in 1711. He unsuccessfully claimed the throne of Spain as Charles III following the death of its ruler, and Charles's relative, Charles II of Spain, in 1700. He married Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, by whom he had his two children: Maria Theresa, born 1717, the last Habsburg sovereign, and Maria Anna, born 1718, Governess of the Austrian Netherlands.
Four years before the birth of Maria Theresa, due to his lack of male heirs, Charles provided for a male-line succession failure with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713. The Emperor favoured his own daughters over those of his elder brother and predecessor, Joseph I, in the succession, ignoring the decree he had signed during the reign of his father, Leopold I. Charles sought the other European powers' approval, but they exacted harsh terms: England demanded that Austria abolish its overseas trading company. In total, Great Britain, France, Saxony-Poland, the Dutch Republic, Spain, Venice, States of the Church, Prussia, Russia, Denmark, Savoy-Sardinia, Bavaria, and the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire recognised the sanction. France, Spain, Saxony-Poland, Bavaria and Prussia later reneged on their agreement. Charles died in 1740, sparking the War of the Austrian Succession, which plagued his daughter and successor, Maria Theresa, for eight years.
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina, Holy Roman Empress (1717 – 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands and Parma. By marriage, she was Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Holy Roman Empress.
Upon the death of her father, Saxony, Prussia, Bavaria and France repudiated the sanction they had recognised during his lifetime. Prussia proceeded to invade the affluent Habsburg province of Silesia, sparking a nine-year conflict known as the War of the Austrian Succession. Maria Theresa would later unsuccessfully try to reconquer Silesia during the Seven Years' War.
She married Francis Stephen of Lorraine and had sixteen children, including Queen Marie Antoinette of France, Queen Maria Carolina of Naples, Duchess Maria Amalia of Parma and two Holy Roman Emperors, Joseph II and Leopold II. Though she was expected to cede power to Francis and Joseph, both of whom were officially her co-rulers in Austria and Bohemia, Maria Theresa was the absolute sovereign who ruled by the counsel of her advisers. She criticised and disapproved of many of Joseph's actions. Although she is considered to have been intellectually inferior to both Joseph and Leopold, Maria Theresa understood the importance of her public persona and was able to simultaneously evoke both esteem and affection from her subjects.
Maria Theresa promulgated financial and educational reforms, with the assistance of Count Friedrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz and Gottfried van Swieten, promoted commerce and the development of agriculture, and reorganised Austria's ramshackle military, all of which strengthened Austria's international standing. However, she refused to allow religious toleration and contemporary travellers thought her regime was bigoted and superstitious. As a young monarch who fought two dynastic wars, she believed that her cause should be the cause of her subjects, but in her later years she would believe that their cause must be hers.
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1744 – 1818) - Father Charles I Ludwig Frederick, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (German duchy). Mother Princess Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen (small principality in Germany) Charlotte was a Princess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Queen of the United Kingdom as the consort of King George III. She was also the Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg and electress of Hanover in the Holy Roman Empire until the promotion of her husband to King of Hanover on 12 October 1814, which made her Queen consort of Hanover.
She was a granddaughter of Adolf Frederick II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz by his third wife, Christiane Emilie Antonie, Princess of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen. Her father's elder half brother reigned from 1708 to 1753 as Adolf Friedrich III. Queen Charlotte was a patroness of the arts, known to Johann Christian Bach and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, among others. She was also an amateur botanist who helped expand Kew Gardens. George III and Queen Charlotte had 15 children, 13 of whom survived to adulthood.
Joseph II (1741 – 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. He was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I. He was thus the first ruler in the Austrian dominions of the House of Lorraine, styled Habsburg-Lorraine. Joseph was a proponent of enlightened absolutism; however, his commitment to modernizing reforms subsequently engendered significant opposition, which eventually culminated in an ultimate failure to fully implement his programmes. He has been ranked, with Catherine II of Russia and Frederick II of Prussia, as one of the three great Enlightenment monarchs. His policies are now known as Josephinism. He died with no sons and was succeeded by his younger brother, Leopold.
Leopold II (1747 – 1792), was Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary and Bohemia from 1790 to 1792, Archduke of Austria and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790. Leopold was a moderate proponent of enlightened absolutism. Leopold was born in Vienna, the third son, and was at first educated for the priesthood, but the theological studies to which he was forced to apply himself are believed to have influenced him against the Church.
In 1753, he was engaged to Maria Beatrice d'Este, heiress to the Duchy of Modena. The marriage never materialised; Maria Beatrice instead married Leopold's brother, Archduke Ferdinand. On the death of his elder brother, Charles, in 1761, it was decided that he should succeed to his father's grand duchy of Tuscany, which was erected into a "secundogeniture" or apanage for a second son. This settlement was the condition of his marriage on 5 August 1764 with Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain, daughter of Charles III of Spain and Maria Amalia of Saxony.
Francis II (1768 – 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Empire after the disastrous defeat of the Third Coalition by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. In 1804, he had founded the Austrian Empire and became Francis I (Franz I.), the first Emperor of Austria (Kaiser von Österreich), ruling from 1804 to 1835, so later he was named the one and only Doppelkaiser (double emperor) in history. For the two years between 1804 and 1806, Francis used the title and style by the grace of God elected Roman Emperor, always August, hereditary Emperor of Austria and he was called the Emperor of both Germany and Austria. He was also Apostolic King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia as Francis I. He also served as the first president of the German Confederation following its establishment in 1815.
Francis I continued his leading role as an opponent of Napoleonic France in the Napoleonic Wars, and suffered several more defeats after Austerlitz. The proxy marriage of state with his daughter, Marie Louise of Austria to Napoleon on 10 March 1810, was assuredly his most severe defeat. After the abdication of Napoleon following the War of the Sixth Coalition, Austria participated as a leading member of the Holy Alliance at the Congress of Vienna, which was largely dominated by Francis' chancellor Klemens Wenzel and Prince von Metternich, culminated in a new European map and the restoration of Francis' ancient dominions (except the Holy Roman Empire which was dissolved). Due to the establishment of the Concert of Europe, which largely resisted popular nationalist and liberal tendencies, Francis became viewed as a reactionary later in his reign.
|Karl Heinrich Marx (5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. His ideas played a significant role in the development of social science and the socialist political movement. He published various books during his lifetime, with the most notable being The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Capital (1867–1894); some of his works were co-written with his friend and fellow German revolutionary socialist, Friedrich Engels.
Born into a wealthy middle class family in Trier, formerly in Prussian Rhineland now called Rhineland-Palatinate, Marx studied at both the University of Bonn and the University of Berlin, where he became interested in the philosophical ideas of the Young Hegelians. In 1836, he became engaged to Jenny von Westphalen, marrying her in 1843. After his studies, he wrote for a radical newspaper in Cologne, and began to work out his theory of dialectical materialism. Moving to Paris in 1843, he began writing for other radical newspapers. He met Engels in Paris, and the two men worked together on a series of books. Exiled to Brussels, he became a leading figure of the Communist League, before moving back to Cologne, where he founded his own newspaper. In 1849 he was exiled again and moved to London together with his wife and children. In London, where the family was reduced to poverty, Marx continued writing and formulating his theories about the nature of society and how he believed it could be improved, as well as campaigning for socialism and becoming a significant figure in the International Workingmen's Association.
Marx's theories about society, economics and politics, which are collectively known as Marxism, hold that all societies progress through the dialectic of class struggle; a conflict between an ownership class which controls production and a lower class which produces the labour for such goods. Heavily critical of the current socio-economic form of society, capitalism, he called it the "dictatorship of the bourgeoisie", believing it to be run by the wealthy classes purely for their own benefit, and predicted that, like previous socioeconomic systems, it would inevitably produce internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system, socialism. He argued that under socialism society would be governed by the working class in what he called the "dictatorship of the proletariat", the "workers state" or "workers' democracy". He believed that socialism would, in its turn, eventually be replaced by a stateless, classless society called communism. Along with believing in the inevitability of socialism and communism, Marx actively fought for the former's implementation, arguing that both social theorists and underprivileged people should carry out organised revolutionary action to topple capitalism and bring about socio-economic change.
Revolutionary socialist governments espousing Marxist concepts took power in a variety of countries in the 20th century, leading to the formation of such socialist states as the Soviet Union in 1922 and the People's Republic of China in 1949, while various theoretical variants, such as Leninism, Stalinism, Trotskyism and Maoism, were developed. Marx is typically cited, with Émile Durkheim and Max Weber, as one of the three principal architects of modern social science. Marx has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, and in a 1999 BBC poll was voted the top "thinker of the millennium" by people from around the world.
Well there it is, after all of those wars there is a "New" Europe, and in this new Europe there are no longer any Blacks, they have disappeared! At this point even the dimmest would suspect that there is much that the Albinos are not telling us. But then again, who but the dimmest would believe the history of the Albinos anyway? Aren't these the people who have taught us that there were no Blacks in Europe? Yet in these pages we have learnt that Blacks were the first settlers of Europe, but more, that they were the rulers of Europe until the fall of the Holy Roman Empire.
Obviously then, those wars were not about that which the Albinos say they were about: Though Blacks were undoubtedly mainly the Catholics, there were some Black protestants too, so a religious war could hardly result in the eradication of just Blacks. Similarly, wars for territory could not result in the eradication of just Blacks, because Blacks were all over Europe. That leaves only "Race" as a reason for those wars - the extermination of European Blacks - a Genocide! But even in a genocide event, there are still survivors, what could have happened to them?
Well at that time, there was only one place were millions of undesired people could be accommodated, the newly discovered Americas. As you may recall from the history of the Thirty years war: Quote - The male population of the German states was reduced by almost half. Yet in the British colonies of North America we see entries like this for passenger ships docking at their ports: Cargo - 250 Palatine Males (Electoral Palatinate or County Palatine of the Rhine, a historic state of the Black Holy Roman Empire). They were required to take an oath which included the following, quote: we will demean our Selves peaceably to all his Majesties Subjects, and Strictly observe and conform to the Laws of England and of this Province to the utmost of our power and best of our understanding.
Common sense tells us that a nation which had lost half of it's male population would consider those remaining to be GOLDEN! And would certainly not allow them to leave. And as we know, Britain and the rebellious Albinos were allies in the Thirty years war, obviously that is not an oath that the citizen of an ally would be required to take. So then, it seems safe to say that those Palatine Males, and millions more just like them, were Blacks, and part of an ethnic cleansing of Blacks from Europe. Therefore if we want to know what happened to them we will have to follow them to the Americas.
At this point, the history of Black Germany, and its companion history, Black Britain - where exactly the same thing happened - is exactly the same.
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Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive thoughts that produce uneasiness, apprehension, fear, or worry, by repetitive behaviors aimed at reducing the associated anxiety, or by a combination of such obsessions and compulsions. Symptoms of the disorder include excessive washing or cleaning; repeated checking; extreme hoarding; preoccupation with sexual, violent or religious thoughts; aversion to particular numbers; and nervous rituals, such as opening and closing a door a certain number of times before entering or leaving a room, AND WHITENIZING IMAGES! These symptoms can be alienating and time-consuming, and often cause severe emotional and financial distress. The acts of those who have OCD may appear paranoid and potentially psychotic. However, OCD sufferers generally recognize their obsessions and compulsions as irrational, and may become further distressed by this realization.