Modern Pakistan (Which was a part of India until 1947)
When last we left the Indus Valley, Civilization there had ceased at about 1,800 and 1,700 B.C. Perhaps because of some unknown natural disaster. If rainfall declined in the Indus region between 1800 and 1700 B.C, then around 1500 B.C. it increased again, making the Indus Plain better able to support life. It was between 1500 and 1200 B.C. that the Dravidian Albinos who had originally migrated from Africa into India and then continued North into Central Asia, to escape the Burning Sunshine found at lower latitudes returned to India.
No one knows why the Albinos left Central Asia; perhaps it was some natural disaster, or perhaps they had overpopulated the sparse land and now found it difficult to acquire enough food there. Whatever the cause, within the next 2,000 years (1,500 B.C. to 500 A.D.) ALL the millions of Albinos (Caucasians) would abandon Central Asia and move to India and Europe. Today the Uyghurs, a Turkic ethnic group, who live primarily in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, in the People's Republic of China, are the only Caucasians still living in Eastern and Central Asia. (Many are actually now mixed-race).
It is also not known why they would hazard a return to lands that they originally found inhospitable because of the intense Sunshine. Perhaps over the tens-of-thousands of years that they spent in Central Asia, they were able to acquire a "Fixed" degree of Melanination through crossbreeding with the Blacks in China and Eastern Europe who surrounded them (see the Eastern Europe and China pages).
Unlike their normally pigmented brethren who stayed behind in India, they had not evolved into a civilized people. They had not developed a written language, technology or cities. They returned to India as an illiterate, pastoral people now called Aryans/Arians. They migrated from the steppe lands of Central Asia through what is now Afghanistan, down through the Khyber Pass and onto the sparsely populated Indus Plain (The Khyber Pass, altitude: 1,070 m or 3,510 ft. is a mountain pass that links Pakistan and Afghanistan).
This subject IS controversial; Hindus themselves say that the Arian's were immigrants NOT conquers. However, There can be no doubt that:
1) Indians ARE a mix of indigenous people and the Albinos – in very varying degrees (excepting Dravidians).
2) The Rig Veda, which is one of the earliest known writings written in any Indo-European language, The Hindu Bible of sorts. The Rig Veda speaks explicitly of war with, and conquest of Blacks.
It should be kept in mind, that the Veda's were written several centuries after the fact. As is always the case with oral histories, myth and fact become blended over time and then become indistinguishable, one from the other.
3) There is no other way to account for The Hindu Caste system, except as something put in place by an invader, who upon conquering an indomitable foe, and seeking to insure that he does not rise again, codifies his status with religious dogma and social taboo's.
The Aryans/Arians came to the Indus Plain on horseback, in waves separated perhaps by decades or longer. Like other pastoral people, they were warriors, the Arian's were familiar with prowling and hunting and with bow and arrow. Each family was ruled by an authoritarian male, and each Arian tribe was ruled by a king called a raja, who was obliged to consult with tribal councils, on matters of major importance.
Like other pastoral people, the Arian invaders were storytellers. They brought with them their centuries old sacred hymns, myths and oral history - stories that expressed their desire to please their gods. They had a father god of the heaven, sky and atmosphere: called Dyaus Pitar (sky father). They had a male god of thunder and rain called Indra, who was also the god of war.
The Arians had a god of fire they called Agni. To the Arian's, Agni "was" fire, and they believed that Agni hungrily devoured the animals that they sacrificed in their rituals of burning. These sacrifices were performed by priests to obtain from their gods the gifts of children, success in war, wealth, health, longevity, food, drink or anything else that contributed to their happiness.
With the passing years, the waves of Arian tribes that had come to the Indus Plain, spread out across the region. They warred against the ancient original people, and they took and settled their land. This land then provided the Arians with pasture for their animals. The Arians grouped in villages and built homes of bamboo or light wood - homes without statues or art. They soon learned agriculture and began growing crops. The environment supplied them with all they needed. But perhaps responding to their old traditions and impulses, the Arian tribes began warring against each other - wars that might begin with the stealing of cattle.
Because of these wars, gradually Arian tribal kings began changing from elected leaders to autocratic rulers. Arian kings had begun associating their power with the powers of their gods, rather than the approval of their fellow tribesmen. They began allying themselves with priests. And as in the West, kings were acquiring divinity. By taxing their subjects, these kings could then create armies that were theirs, rather than an instrument of the tribe.
In the decades around 1,000 B.C, there was a shortage of rainfall in the Indus valley, and running from this drought, some Arian tribes trekked eastward along the foot of the Himalayan mountains. Here the jungles were less dense, and the rivers easier to cross, this path took them to the plains of the Ganges Valley. Meanwhile some Arian priests had wandered ahead of their tribes, in order to evangelize among the tribes that they may come upon. They found these societies to have a more egalitarian organization than they had, and so they despised them for not having kings as godly and autocratic as theirs.
By now, the Arian's had acquired iron tools and weapons, iron having spread eastward through Persia. And now with their superior weaponry, the Arian's fought those who resisted their advance. The Arian's believed that the gods were on their side, and that resistance from local peoples was inspired by demons. Gradually the Arian's spread out over much of the Ganges Valley.
Some Arian's also migrated south, along the western coast of the Indian subcontinent, and some Arian's went down the eastern coast, to an area called Kalinga. A few Arian's went as far south as the island that in Hindu literature, was called Lanka. And some Arian priests went as missionaries to southern India. Occasionally the Arian missionaries might feel threatened or mistreated, and they would then seek the aide of their king. This being a good pretext for incursions, their king's warriors would came south to their rescue. Incursions not withstanding, Southern India remained independent of Arian rule.
With the Arian's settling alongside local peoples, a complex hierarchy of classes developed that would be called caste. At the top of this class ranking was the priests and their entire families, the Brahmins. Also at the top were the warrior-aristocrats, the Kshatriyas, whose job it was to practice constantly for combat. Neither the Brahmins nor the Kshatriyas conceded superiority to the other, but they agreed that the other classes were lower than they. The first of these lower classes was the Vaishas and their families. This class were Arian's who tended cattle and served the Brahmins and Kshatriyas in others ways (the middle-class). The lowest class was the conquered Blacks, they were called the Shudras. The Arian's made these four classifications a part of their mythology. The four groups it was claimed, came from the body of the god Prajapati: the Brahmins from the god's mouth, the warriors from the god's arms, the tenders of cattle from his legs, and the Shudras from his feet.
In the beginning this class system was less rigid than it would be centuries later. People from different classes could dine together. A man from a non-Brahmin family could still become a priest and therefore a Brahmin. And although marriage within one's own class was preferred, there was no absolute restriction against marrying people from a different class.
By around 700 or 600 B.C, the migrations of the Arian's had ended. With their new successes in agriculture, the Arian's increased in number and they began to create cities. Arian traders, merchants, and landlords appeared, as did money lending. Arian's began trading with Arabia and the great empire of the Assyrians. In the 600s B.C, India began trading with China, the Malay Peninsula and the islands of what is now, Indonesia and the Philippines. By 600 B.C, numerous cities had arisen in northern India - cities with fortifications, moats and ramparts in response to the dangers of war. In northern India, along the Ganges River, sixteen different kingdoms had emerged.
Over time, a mix developed between the nomadic religion of the Arian's, and the local religions of the conquered. This mix came with Arian males marrying non-Arian females, and it came with some among the conquered, accepting the religion of their conquerors - much as Amerindians in the Americas, accepted the religion of their Christian conquerors.
In India this blend of Arian and local religions became known as Hinduism, a word derived from the Arian word Sindu, the name the Arian's gave to the Indus River. The Hindu religion ranged from veneration of traditional Arian gods, by urban intellectuals, to the worship of a diversity of local, rural, and agricultural deities.
Generally; Hinduism is the conviction that the soul or self (atman) is subject to “samsara” the transmigration through many forms of incarnation. Held together with this belief is another, that of “karman” which says that the soul carries with it, the burden of its past actions; which conditions the forms of its future incarnations. As long as the soul mistakes this phenomenal world for reality and clings to existence in it, it is doomed to suffer endless births and deaths.
The various Indian cults and philosophical systems offer ways in which to attain moksa or mukti (release or liberation) from the misery of subjection to the inexorable processes of cosmic time. Basically, this liberation consists of the soul's effective comprehension of its essential unity with Brahman, the supreme “Atman” or essence of reality, and it’s merging with it. Most of the ways by which this goal may be attained require self-effort in mastering meditation techniques and living an ascetic life. But, in the devotional (bhakti) cults associated with Visnu (Vishnu) and Siva (Shiva), an intense personal devotion to the deity concerned is believed to earn divine aid to salvation. Also see Jainism – next Indus page.
Vishnu is one of the principal Hindu deities, worshiped as the protector and preserver of the world and restorer of dharma (moral order). Vishnu, like Siva (the other major god of Hinduism), is a syncretic personality who combines many lesser cult figures and local heroes.
Temple images of Vishnu depict him either sitting, often in the company of his consorts Laksmi (also called Sri) and Bhumidevi (Earth); standing holding various weapons; or reclining on the coils of the serpent Sesa, asleep on the cosmic ocean during the period between the periodic annihilation and renewal of the world. The standing Vishnu is dressed in royal garments and holds in his four (sometimes two) hands the sankha (conch), cakra (discus), gada (club), or padma (lotus). On his chest is the curl of hair known as the srivatsa mark, a sign of his immortality, and around his neck he wears the auspicious jewel Kaustubha. In painting, Vishnu is usually shown as dark complexioned, which is also a distinguishing feature of his incarnations.
Also spelled Siwa, or Shiva, one of the main deities of Hinduism, worshiped as the paramount lord by the Saiva (Shaivite) sects of India. Siva (Sanskrit: “Auspicious One”) is one of the most complex gods of India, embodying seemingly contradictory qualities. He is both the destroyer and the restorer, the great ascetic and the symbol of sensuality, the benevolent herdsman of souls and the wrathful avenger. Though some of the combinations of roles may be explained by Siva's identification with earlier mythological figures, they also arise from a tendency in Hinduism to combine complementary qualities in a single ambiguous figure.
Siva is usually depicted in painting and sculpture as white or ash-colored, with a blue neck (from holding in his throat the poison thrown up at the churning of the cosmic ocean, which threatened to destroy humankind), his hair arranged in a coil of matted locks (jatamakuta) and adorned with the crescent moon and the Ganges (according to legend he brought the Ganges River to earth by allowing her to trickle through his hair, thus breaking her fall). He has three eyes, the third eye bestowing inward vision but capable of burning destruction when focused outward. He wears a garland of skulls and a serpent around his neck and carries in his two (sometimes four) hands a deerskin, a trident, a small hand drum, or a club with a skull at the end.
|It can logically be deduced; that having two co-equal supreme gods “Vishnu and Siva” one Black, one White; was an attempt by the Arians to encourage acceptance of the new Hindu religion, by the ingenious people.|
Siva is represented in a variety of forms: in a pacific mood with his consort Parvati and son Skanda, as the cosmic dancer (Nataraja), as a naked ascetic, as a mendicant beggar, as a yogin, and as the androgynous union of Siva and his consort in one body, half-male and half-female (Ardhanarisvara). Among his common epithets are Sambhu (“Benignant”), Sankara (“Beneficent”), Pasupati (“Lord of Beasts“), Mahesa (“Great Lord”), and Mahadeva (“Great God”).
Siva's female consort is known under various manifestations as Uma, Sati, Parvati, Durga, and Kali (Siva is also sometimes paired with the supreme goddess, Sakti). The divine couple, together with their sons—the six-headed Skanda and the elephant-headed Ganesa—are said to dwell on Mount Kailasa in the Himalayas. Siva's mount and animal image is the bull Nandi; a sculpture of Nandi sits opposite the main sanctuary of every Siva temple. In temples and in private shrines Siva is worshiped in his fundamental form of the linga, or phallus.
Now lets go over to China, to see what the "Other" branch of the Eurasian Tree is up to.
Please visit the "Additional Material Area" for many more photographs of each civilization, and related material <Click>
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